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pro tability. If large capital expenditures are involved, it should be followed by a more strenuous nancial analysis such at the IRR and NPV. The internal rate of return (IRR) and net present value (NPV) are both discounted cash- ow techniques for determining pro tability and determining if a waste minimization alternative will improve the nancial position of the company. Many organizations use these methods for ranking capital projects that are competing for funds, such as the case with the various waste minimization alternatives. Capital funding for a project can depend on the ability of the project to generate positive cash ows beyond the payback period to realize an acceptable return on investment. Both the IRR and NPV recognize the time value of money by discounting the projected future net cash ows to the present. For investments with a low level of risk, an after tax IRR of 12 percent to 15 percent is typically acceptable. Each cash in ow/out ow is discounted back to its present value (PV). Then they are summed. The equation for NPV is NPV =
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t=0 N
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Ct (1 + r )t
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t = the time of the cash ow N = the total time of the project r = the discount rate (the rate of return that could be earned on an investment in the nancial markets with similar risk) Ct = the net cash ow (the amount of cash) at time t (for educational purposes, C0 is commonly placed to the left of the sum to emphasize its role as the initial investment)
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The IRR is a capital budgeting metric used by rms to decide whether they should make investments. It is an indicator of the ef ciency of an investment, as opposed to NPV, which indicates value or magnitude. The IRR is the annualized effective compounded return rate that can be earned on the invested capital; that is, the yield on the investment. A project is a good investment proposition if its IRR is greater than the rate of return that could be earned by alternate investments (investing in other projects, buying bonds, even putting the money in a bank account). Thus, the IRR should be compared with any alternate costs of capital including an appropriate risk premium. Mathematically the IRR is de ned as any discount rate that results in a net present value of zero for a series of cash ows. In general, if the IRR is greater than the project s cost of capital, or hurdle rate, the project will add value for the company. The IRR is determined by calculating the interest rate (r) when NPV equals zero or the equation and solving for r NPV =
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t t = 0 (1 + r )
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STEP 7: DETERMINE, EVALUATE, AND SELECT WASTE MINIMIZATION ALTERNATIVES
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TABLE 8.8 ANALYSIS YEAR
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NET PRESENT VALUE
CASH FLOW
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 MARR IRR NPV
$65,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 $20,000 15.0% 28.2% $30,761
Most spreadsheet programs typically have the ability to automatically calculate IRR and NPV from a series of cash ows. Table 8.8 is an example applying these nancial evaluation concepts. Returning to the baler example discussed previously, recalling an initial cost of $65,000 and $20,000 in annual savings and assuming a baler life span of 10 years and an organization minimum attractive rate of return (MARR) of 15 percent. The MARR is the minimum return on a project that a manager is willing to accept before starting a project, given its risk and the opportunity cost of forgoing other projects. The MARR is calculated by the management working with the nance department and typically ranges between 3 to 15 percent for most organizations. Table 8.8 shows the cash ows, IRR, and NPV. As shown in the last two rows, the IRR is 28.2 percent and the NPV is nearly $31,000 at an MARR of 15 percent. The fact that the IRR is greater than the 15 percent MARR and the NPV is positive indicates that the project is a good nancial decision. Waste minimization alternatives should also be evaluated based on sustainability and the cultural t within the organization. Sustainability is de ned as an organization s investment in a system of living, projected to be viable on an ongoing basis that provides quality of life for all individuals of sentient species and preserves natural ecosystems. Sustainability in its simplest form describes a characteristic of a process or state that can be maintained at a certain level inde nitely. The term, in its environmental usage, refers
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