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Number of Firms Analyzed 6 5 2 3 3 3 8 7 6 8 8 5 7 7 6 8 5 6 5 4 6 9 8 14 8 7 5 8 7 8 7 9 10
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SIC Group Number 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 67 70 72 73 75 76 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 86 87 91 92 93 94 95 96 97
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Description Apparel and accessory stores Home furniture and furnishings Eating and drinking places Miscellaneous retail Depository institutions Non-depository credit institutions Security and commodity brokers Insurance carriers Insurance agents, brokers, and service Real estate Holding and other investment offices Hotels and other lodging places Personal services Business services Automotive repair, services, and parking Miscellaneous repair services Motion pictures Amusement and recreation services Health services Legal services Educational services Social services Museums and zoological gardens Membership organizations Engineering and management services Executive and legislative government Justice, public order, and safety Public finance, taxation, and monetary policy Administration of human resource programs Administration of environmental quality Administration of economic programs National security and international affairs
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Number of Firms Analyzed 7 8 13 8 8 6 6 7 9 8 6 7 8 12 9 8 6 4 14 7 8 6 4 6 5 5 6 4 5 4 3 3
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Hazardous wastes were not reported by many manufacturing respondents. These
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companies view this data as sensitive, and since it is illegal to dispose of hazardous wastes at land lls, these types of wastes were not included as responses in most cases. Generally hazardous wastes compose a very low percentage of the total waste stream. Table 2.2 displays the EPA volume to mass conversion factors for common waste components. The conversion factors were obtained from EPA ( non-hw/recycle/recmeas/, retrieved July 10, 2007). The following densities in Table 14.1 were experimentally determined at the University of Toledo from 1998 through 2007. The densities are used during the data analysis phase of waste assessment to convert volumes.
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TABLE 14.1
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Mixed of ce paper Old corrugated containers (cardboard) Food waste Old news print Paper towels
Loose in desk trash bin Not broken down and uncompacted Loose in desk trash bin Loose in desk trash bin Loose in restroom trash bin
55 lb/yd3 45 lb/yd3 68 lb/yd3 325 lb/yd3 20 lb/yd3
14.5 Existing Data Collection
Existing raw data was identi ed for this research and provided valuable direction for the additional data collection. The existing data was primarily utilized to validate the integrated model. These existing raw data sources contained 1282 solid waste generation and recycling records of U.S. companies. These data sources were identi ed from previous research conducted (Franchetti, 1999), professional waste management contacts, information gathered during the literature review, and internet searches. The existing records and studies are from the Waste Minimization Research Project (Lucas County, Ohio) and similar research projects, manufacturing company records, and data collected from the U.S. government. Much raw data existed on waste generation quantities of individual companies, but little information. Many state and local environmental agencies collected waste generation data to use for various aggregate reports. These reports examined waste generation for entire geographical regions, not individual companies. Limited research has been conducted to compile and analyze waste generation for individual companies. No sources were found that archived and consolidated this data from the various sources. Most government agencies collected the individual company data and used it solely to establish aggregate waste rates for reporting requirements. Few in-depth statistical analyses were conducted on the data by the government agencies. The individual data was stored in les and rarely used for other purposes. The existing data sources are listed below
Lucas County s (Ohio) Waste Minimization Research Project solid waste assess-
ments records (24 companies in total). Mahoning County s (Ohio) Industrial Waste Minimization Project, which conducts solid waste for manufacturers (46 companies in total). U.S. governmental records and of ces, speci cally Solid waste management district of ces located across the United States (1,060 companies in total); many of the districts have conducted industrial waste assessments throughout their respective areas.
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency on the local, state, and federal level
(132 companies in total). Speci c data collection methods were applied for each data source, depending on the nature of the source. Initially, interviews with waste-hauling company management and recycling collector management were planned for this research. These data sources were not available from these companies due to con dentiality and customer protection. As a substitute, phone and personal interviews were conducted with solid waste management districts across the United States. In conclusion, the data collection phase of this research was successful; suf cient data was collected to begin modeling. Several issues were identi ed from the collection process and the actual data. First, many government agencies collected the required data to build the waste evaluation models, but did not use it for that purpose. These government agencies could achieve signi cant improvements in the reliability of the studies they conduct if they worked together and shared information. A common database would aid in storing and disseminating such information. Also identi ed from the government agencies were a wide variety of data collection methods and analysis techniques to accomplish the same goals. A common goal was to estimate the annual generation amounts for a speci c region of the United States. Nonstandardized methods were used to collect the data and nonscienti c analyses techniques were used to estimate these aggregate totals. This creates comparison discrepancies when different analysis techniques are used. A standardized approach to estimate generation amounts coupled with government agencies sharing information would reduce this problem. The model developed for this research applied a scienti c, standardized approach to estimate and predict solid waste generation rates and will also aid in reducing this problem.
Signi cant research was conducted at the University of Toledo regarding solid waste estimation. This research provided valuable insights into the nature of solid waste generation of individual companies. From 1996 through August of 2002 the Environmentally Conscious Design and Manufacturing Lab (ECDML) located at the University of Toledo, College of Engineering has conducted 24 solid waste assessments for manufacturing and service companies in Lucas County, Ohio. The largest research project at the ECDML was the Waste Minimization Research Project, which provides no-cost solid waste assessments to businesses operating in Lucas County. The purpose of the waste assessments was to quantify waste streams by annual weight and composition and to provide economical solutions to reduce, reuse, or recycle components of the waste stream. The companies surveyed included a broad range from manufacturing to hospitals. This section discusses the methodology utilized to conduct the waste assessments, the bene ts and drawbacks of this data for this research, and a brief overview of the data. The ECDML solid waste assessment data was used as the
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