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One of the greatest (and perhaps most underestimated) challenges that faces transoceanic cable design personnel is the fact that, in many cases, one end of the cable will be originating SONET traffic while the other will be originating SDH. This presents a unique task for the span termination equipment, which must serve as a gateway between the two largely incompatible protocols. The transoceanic protocol that resides on the transoceanic ring is designed to protect the installation through a very innovative utilization of the SONET/SDH protection bytes. Consider the illustration shown in Figure 7-9. In this example, we have a four-node dual fiber ring with landing points in Burlington (BTV), Boston (BOS), Miami (MIA), and London (LHR). Under normal operating conditions, traffic is carried on the solid outer ring, while the inner dashed ring serves as the backup span. In the event of a span failure between Burlington and London, two scenarios are possible (the nodes have been removed for purposes of clarity). In the first scenario,
Figure 7-9 UPSR under normal operating conditions. BTV
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SONET and SDH Applications
7
the Burlington node recognizes the failure on the outbound span and moves to the backup span, as shown in Figure 7-10. This overcomes the problem of the failed span but adds a degree of complexity because now the distance from Burlington to London is significantly longer. Instead of a single hop trip between the two cities, the path now goes from Burlington, to Boston, to Miami, and then to London. In a UPSR configuration, this poses no problem, because the backup span is reserved for potential failures. What happens, though, if this is a BLSR network In that case, half of the traffic travels on the primary ring, while the other half travels on the secondary ring. If the network is configured to swap to the secondary span in the event of a failure of the primary span, traffic on the secondary ring could be destroyed. To avoid this problem, network designers rely on a protocol called the transoceanic protocol. Using the transoceanic protocol, channels are assigned on each ring in opposing order. For example, in an OC-48 environment, the primary ring would assign users to channels starting
Figure 7-10 Breach of UPSR.
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SONET and SDH Applications
SONET and SDH Applications
with the highest numbered channel 48 in this case. The secondary ring would be assigned starting with channel 1. The two would then meet in the middle. So what is the advantage of this technique One is that high-priority traffic that is, traffic with critical QoS requirements can be placed on the primary ring, while traffic with less critical QoS requirements can be carried on the secondary. In the event that a failure causes the primary to have to switch to the secondary, the high-priority traffic would be 100 percent protected. Depending on the number of channels that the lower priority traffic occupies, it could be unaffected, because the traffic that is switched over will first occupy the channels at the other end of the array of available timeslots, as shown in Figure 7-11. These implementations usually support a variety of protocols, as they must, given the fact that they straddle SONET and SDH-oriented countries. These protocols include
STS-1 and AU-3 (HO) STS-3c and AU-4 STS-12c and AU-4-4c STS-48c and AU-4-16 STS-192c and AU-4-64c Various Gigabit Ethernet-compatible mappings (STS-3c and AU-4)
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