barcode generator in vb.net 2010 Figure 7-20 Bandwidth trading. in Software

Generating Code39 in Software Figure 7-20 Bandwidth trading.

Figure 7-20 Bandwidth trading.
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SONET and SDH Applications
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Companies like Enron have suggested that bandwidth, along with power, is the next product that will be widely sold in a forward commodity market. As one might suspect, however, this concept does not sit well with the legacy carriers, since the commoditization of bandwidth represents a direction in which they don t want to go. In spite of that, many service providers are customers of bandwidth traders, buying bandwidth from the cheapest source as a way to control their own network costs. Enron trades as the principal player in the bandwidth commodity game, which means that the company pays for the products it is buying and selling, often before it has a customer. As the principal player in the transaction, Enron can play any number of roles: they can hedge, serve as the intermediary, or be a speculator. As a hedge, they can offset transactions as a hedge against less desirable positions. As an intermediary, they can position themselves between a facilities-based carrier such as an ILEC and a non-facilities-based carrier such as a CLEC, and buy bandwidth from one to sell to the other. As a speculator, Enron can either sell available bandwidth or buy excess capacity from another company, hoping that the price changes favorably to allow them to play in the arbitrage game and make a large profit. To raise awareness of the potential value of bandwidth trading, and to increase interest in it among the carriers, both Enron and Williams petitioned the Competitive Telecommunications Association (CompTel) to create an ad hoc working group to examine the possibility and feasibility of creating a bandwidth-trading organization that would push the industry for a standardized trading agreement that could be used universally. In 1999, CompTel created the Bandwidth Trading Organization (www.bandwidthtradingorganization.com), and although no formal agreement has yet been forged, a great deal of work has been done, including the publication of a mission statement and the circulation of a straw agreement among all players. A formal trading agreement is expected soon and will only address the provisioning of SONET/SDH circuits. In the future, as provisionable IP circuits gain capacity and standards for provisioning wavelengths and wavelength interfaces become more common, commodity trading of those resources will become more common. Challenges still face the market for commoditized bandwidth, although they are not show-stoppers by any means. Until pooling points become more common and a standardized provisioning contract is created, freely operated markets for bandwidth will still stumble a bit.
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SONET and SDH Applications
SONET and SDH Applications
The energy consortia are closer than the telecom companies to establishing a standard contract, but this will turn around in the relatively near future. The greatest stumbling block in the telecom arena is the legacy mindset that is so infused with risk-averse behavior. Carriers want the most for their investment dollar and are not accustomed to operating in a marketplace that is fraught with some degree of risk. Their greatest revenues come from value-added services, and as a result, they are loathe to endanger that revenue stream. They are justifiably concerned that product standardization would lower prices, damage their current product differentiation, and cause the creation of a commodity market. Of course, certain carriers support the success of bandwidth trading, among them the more enlightened companies that understand the value that the process can bring. They also recognize that it is inevitable: bandwidth has all the characteristics of an emerging commodity product, and it is therefore only a matter of time before it achieves full-blown soybean status. Transactions for bandwidth purchases that used to take months to complete will be completed in minutes or seconds, causing the wholesale market efficiencies commonly seen in other industries to appear in telecommunications. Many energy companies like Enron and Williams operate pipelines for oil and natural gas and therefore own significant rights-of-way, along which they can install fiber optic infrastructures. By using these rights-of-way, these companies avoid a significant cost. Enron has approximately 18,000 miles of fiber installed in its network and was the first company to treat bandwidth as a commodity. According to company sources, Enron s telecommunications organization estimates the current market for commodity bandwidth in North America alone to be in excess of $300 billion, $1 trillion worldwide. Those are not numbers to ignore. Enron has not waited for the CompTel Bandwidth Trading Organization to come up with its standards. The company has developed standardized terms and conditions for the movement of commodity bandwidth. It has also designed and proposed an operations model for universal pooling points that would serve as interconnection facilities in certain markets through which connections between buyers and sellers could be created. An independent third party responsible for scheduling connections and ensuring physical and logical transaction security would most likely manage them.
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