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Superframe: 12x193 = 2,316 bits
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can occur relatively infrequently and still convey adequate information to the network. Consequently, bits are robbed from the sixth and eighth iteration of each channel s samples and then only the least significant bit from each sample. The resulting change in voice quality is negligible. Back to the signal-framing bits: within a transmitted superframe, the second and fourth signal-framing bits would be the same, but the sixth would toggle to the opposite value, indicating to the receiving equipment that the samples in that subframe of the superframe should be checked for signaling state changes. The eighth and tenth signal-framing bits would stay the same as the sixth, but would toggle back to the opposite value once again in the twelfth, indicating once again that the samples in that subframe should be checked for signaling state changes.
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Today: Extended Superframe (ESF)
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Although superframe continues to be widely utilized, an improvement came about in the 1980s in the form of extended superframe (ESF), shown in Figure 1-25. ESF groups 24 frames into an entity instead of 12, and like superframe, it reuses some of the frame bits for other purposes. Bits 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24 are used for framing, and form a constantly repeating pattern (001011 . . . ). Bits 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, and 22 are used as a six-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC) to check for bit errors on the facility.
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Figure 1-25 Extended Superframe (ESF).
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Extended Superframe: 24x193 = 4,632 bits
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1
Finally, the remaining bits, all of the odd frame bits in the frame, are used as a 4 Kbps facility data link for end-to-end diagnostics and network management tasks. ESF provides one major benefit over its predecessors: the capability to do non-intrusive testing of the facility. In earlier systems, if the user reported trouble on the span, the span would have to be taken out of service for testing. With ESF, that is no longer necessary because of the added functionality provided by the CRC and the facility data link.
The Rest of the World: E-1
E-1, used for the most part outside of the U.S. and Canada, differs from T-1 on several key points. First, it boasts a 2.048 Mbps facility, rather than the 1.544 Mbps facility found in T-1. Second, it utilizes a 32-channel frame rather than 24. Channel one contains framing information and a four-bit cyclic redundancy check (CRC-4); Channel 16 contains all signaling information for the frame; and channels one through 15 and 17 through 31 transport user traffic. Figure 1-26 shows the frame structure. A number of similarities exist between T-1 and E-1 as well: channels are all 64 Kbps and frames are transmitted 8,000 times per second. Whereas T1 gangs together 24 frames to create an extended superframe, E-1 gangs together 16 frames to create what is known as an ETSI multiframe. The multiframe is subdivided into two sub-multiframes; the CRC-4 in each one is used to check the integrity of the sub-multiframe that preceded it. A final word about T-1 and E-1: because T-1 is a departure from the international E-1 standard, it is incumbent upon the T-1 provider to perform all interconnection conversions between T-1 and E-1 systems. For example, if a
Frame bit
Signaling Bit
Figure 1-26 An E-1 frame showing frame, signaling bits.
Timeslots 2 15
Timeslots 17 32
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