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SONET and SDH Applications
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Provide measurable service level agreements Allow the user to differentiate QoS on a per-flow and/or per-application basis
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The Internet, or even a pure IP network, does not inherently have the capability to do all of these things. IP on top of an ATM backbone, however, does have the capability, and this model seems to be the emerging choice for carriers looking to deploy QoS-capable public networks. By associating IP addresses to ATM virtual circuits, QoS can be assured.
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Along Comes the Optical VPN
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The next stage in the development of the VPN is the addition of optical technology to the transport solution. Optical VPNs add the advantage of extremely high bandwidth as well as the following:
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The capability to provision multiple security levels using any variety of techniques Wavelength-based provisioning for complete control of bandwidth Customer control of the provisioning process, if the carrier desires GUI-based customer interfaces The capability to generate customized reports for clients
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In an optical VPN, shown in Figure 7-22, the wide area optical network provides the high-bandwidth interconnection fabric for multiple company locations, all under the control of a network management system that tracks bandwidth consumption and customer requests for service, provisions as appropriate, and manages billing and accounting functions automatically. The same secure protocols used in the traditional VPN can be used in the optical VPN. It is important to recognize that the private line network will never disappear, but as Internet QoS and encryption protocols improve, and optical fiber becomes more available for transport, the need for a dedicated facility will become less and less obvious. Because of its capability to reduce costs, create customer controllable networks, support new business opportunities, and improve flexibility and speed to market, the optical VPN will be recognized as a powerful enabler of customer relationship management and therefore competitive positioning.
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SONET and SDH Applications
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SONET and SDH Applications
Network Management System
Figure 7-22 Optical VPN.
Location 1 Location 2 Router
Router
Router Location 3
Traffic Aggregation and Transport
As corporations evolve such that they have multiple corporate locations scattered across a large geographic area, as shown in Figure 7-23, traffic patterns usually emerge between the various sites that are relatively predictable. If large volumes of traffic can be predicted between any two sites, then it makes sense to establish a wavelength dedicated for the transport of traffic between them. This technique, often called express traffic
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SONET and SDH Applications
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Figure 7-23 Wide area, multilambda transport.
handling, is used to aggregate and transport traffic at high bandwidth levels between sites in a real or virtual corporate network. As Figure 7-23 shows, the network is designed with high-bandwidth junction points that provide cross-connect capability. Routing between sites is based on the nature and destination of aggregated traffic rather than on the management of individually provisioned wavelengths.
Multi-Domain Wide Area Network Transport
Perhaps a simpler name for this application would be Submarine transport. This application is used when SONET and SDH traffic must be interconnected to form a single, logical network capable of moving the two traffic
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SONET and SDH Applications
SONET and SDH Applications
types seamlessly back and forth. Because of the gravity of the installation and the large volume of traffic that it will naturally carry, it must support a variety of restoration schemes to protect user traffic. It must also support rapid provisioning options.
Ethernet Transport
A fundamental disconnection exists between the core and the metro regions of the network that relates to the basic service offerings of each. In the metro domain, customers require the network to carry the following:
DS-1, E-1, DS-3, and other legacy signals Frame relay and ATM traffic DSL and cable modem traffic Leased wavelength traffic ESCON and FICON signals Video Transparent LAN service traffic Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet
The core network, on the other hand, is typically far less diverse in its design, carrying only packet over Lambda/wavelength, packet over SONET/SDH, and straight SONET and SDH traffic at 2.5 or 10 Gbps. Matching the two environments is a formidable challenge for service providers who must meet the demands for growing bandwidth, evolving QoS-sensitive services, and flexibility. Ethernet, Fast Ethernet, and Gigabit Ethernet represent the fastest growing segment of metro-to-wide-area traffic and as such have become a primary area of focus for manufacturers of devices that straddle the metro/core interface. The traditional central office that serves the metropolitan area, shown in Figure 7-24, is relatively straightforward in its design and mission. Traffic arrives on an optical facility, possibly over DWDM. The traffic is divided and passed into SONET or SDH multiplexers, where each traffic stream is then passed on to an ATM switch or digital cross connect system in the case of traditional voice services. Some of the traffic may be passed on to a router if it is IP-based.
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