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SONET and SDH Applications
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Figure 7-24 The traditional metro office.
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In the evolving metro central office, three techniques exist for handling traffic. The first is with an all-optical design, in which case individual wavelengths are assigned to specific protocols, as shown in Figure 7-25. The second technique is the so-called next-generation SONET/SDH environment, illustrated in Figure 7-26. In this environment, the cross-connect function and the add-drop function are integrated into a single device. Lower-speed services arrive at the DCS and are then mapped into outbound SONET or SDH channels for wide-area transport. The final technique, shown in Figure 7-27, is the multi-service model. Here scalable DWDM optics are interfaced to the ADM function, which in turn is connected to multiple service elements that provide ATM, frame relay, IP, Ethernet, and other desired services. The result of this overall design variety is that networks can be deployed that effectively provide transport for Ethernet and other traffic types between the core and metro environments.
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SONET and SDH Applications
SONET and SDH Applications
Figure 7-25 All-optical CO.
Gigabit Ethernet OC-n FICON/ESCON Fiber Channel Transponder
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Figure 7-26 Next-generation SONET/SDH CO.
DS1/DS3 OC-n 10/100/GE
OC-48
OC-192
Figure 7-27 Multi-service CO.
DS1/DS3 OC-n 10/100/GE Gigabit Ethernet FICON/ESCON Fiber Channel Transponder
DCS A ATM D M IP
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SONET and SDH Applications
7
Corollary Developments
One of the most innovative technologies to come along in recent years is passive optical networking (PON), shown in Figure 7-28. PON comprises nothing more complex than an optical splitter that sits between the customer loops and the transport fabric and creates passive optical channels that are individually fed into the transport network. PON can be used very effectively to transport legacy voice, ATM traffic, and all flavors of Ethernet traffic. When combined with ATM on the backbone, it provides a technique for the fiber-based transport of voice and data services that originate at small and medium-size businesses. The advantages of ATM PON (APON) are numerous:
Fully compatible with the service provider s ATM network backbone The capability to provision bandwidth on-demand A highly competitive solution that is far more cost-effective than SONET/SDH
Figure 7-28 Passive optical networking.
Small Business
Fiber Splitter
Passive
ATM Switch
Residence
Medium-Sized
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SONET and SDH Applications
SONET and SDH Applications
A solution that results in significantly lower hardware costs because of the advantages of convergence Reduced cost per subscriber because of shared access to a network host Based on a well-accepted set of international standards Supports ATM, Ethernet, and circuit-based services
Because Ethernet has become the primary protocol used in corporate environments, the demand to transport it across metro and WANs has grown significantly. Consider, for example, the services offered by Yipes. Their network architecture converges data, voice, and video over an optical networking infrastructure to satisfy the demands of e-commerce, Internet-based enterprises, and multimedia delivery. These services can only be addressed with optical IP networks. The challenge for Yipes has been to meet customer requirements for guaranteed minimum bandwidth to ensure the delivery of the QoS required for multimedia and latency-sensitive applications such as Voice-over-IP. Yipes uses Ethernet to transport IP over optical fiber. This combination offers advantages over legacy WAN architectures in terms of reduced cost, simplified network design, scalable bandwidth, and time to market without reducing reliability or QoS. Bandwidth is delivered through a standard RJ45 port that enables the delivery of Internet connectivity, point-to-point services, multipoint-to-multipoint services, and VoIP at bandwidth levels ranging from 1 Mbps to 1 Gbps. The network, which is entirely non-blocking, guarantees extremely low latency and is thus acceptable for delay-sensitive traffic. Architecturally, redundant fiber rings ensure reliability and availability. Another company in the Ethernet transport game is Telseon. Telseon delivers secure and scalable bandwidth across their own optical network at speeds up to 1 Gbps. They rely on standard Ethernet connections, which eliminates customer dependence on expensive high-speed data interfaces and the management overhead required to deploy and maintain a legacy SONET or SDH network. The company s customers include
IP backbone providers Storage area network (SAN) providers Content providers and distributors Managed service providers
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