barcode generator in vb.net 2010 Figure 1-29 The M13 multiplexing process. in Software

Generator Code 39 Full ASCII in Software Figure 1-29 The M13 multiplexing process.

Figure 1-29 The M13 multiplexing process.
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1.544 Mbps
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24-DS-0s + framing bit M12
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6.312 Mbps
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4-DS-1s M23 44.736 Mbps
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7-DS-2s
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Figure 1-30 M12 frame comprises four sub-frames and 48-bit payload fields: 1,176 bits.
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M0 M1 M1 M1
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C1 C2 C3 C4
F0 F0 F0 F0
C1 C2 C3 C4
C1 C2 C3 C4
F1 F1 F1 F1
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Beginnings
Figure 1-31 M13 frame comprises seven sub-frames and 84-bit payload fields: 4,760 bits.
X1 X1 P1 P2 M1 M2 M3 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 C1 F0 F0 F0 F0 F0 F0 F0 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 C2 F0 F0 F0 F0 F0 F0 F0 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3 C3
1
F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1 F1
The complexity of this process should now be fairly obvious to the reader. If we follow the left-to-right path shown in Figure 1-32, we see the rich complexity that suffuses the M13 signal-building process. Twenty-four 64 Kbps DS0s are aggregated at the ingress side of the T-11 multiplexer, grouped into a T-1 frame, and combined with a single frame bit to form an outbound 1.544 Mbps signal (we call this the M01 stage; that s our nomenclature, used for the sake of naming continuity). That signal then enters the intermediate M12 stage of the multiplexer, where it is combined (bit-interleaved) with three others and a good dollop of alignment overhead to form a 6.312 Mbps DS-2 signal. That DS-2 then enters the M23 stage of the mux, where it is bit-interleaved with six others and another scoop of overhead to create a DS-3 signal. At this point, we have a relatively high-bandwidth circuit that is ready to be moved across the wide area network. Of course, as our friends in the U.K. are wont to say, the inevitable spanner is always tossed into the works (those of us on the left side of the Atlantic call it a wrench). Keep in mind that the 28 (do the math) bitinterleaved DS-1s may well come from 28 different sources, which means that they may well have 28 different destinations. This translates into the pre-SONET digital hierarchy s greatest weakness and one of SONET s greatest advantages. In order to drop a DS-1 at its intermediate destination, we have to bring the composite DS-3 into a set of back-to-back DS-3 multiplexers (sometimes called M13 multiplexers). There, the ingress mux removes the second set of overhead, finds the DS-2 in which the DS-1 we have to drop out is carried, removes its overhead, finds the right DS-1, drops it out, then rebuilds the DS-3 frame, including reconstruction of the overhead, before transmitting it on to its next destination. This process is complex, time-consuming, and expensive. So what if we could come up with a
The process is similar for the E-1 hierarchy.
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Beginnings
Beginnings
method for adding and dropping signal components that eliminated the M13 process entirely What if we could do it as simply as the process shown in Figure 1-33
Figure 1-32 The complexity of M13.
1.544 Mbps
Overhead Added
24-DS-0s + framing bit M12
6.312 Mbps
Overhead Added
4-DS-1s M23 44.736 Mbps
7-DS-2s
Figure 1-33 Dropping a payload component in the M13 environment.
DS-3 M13 M13 DS-3
DS-1
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Beginnings
1
We have. It s called SONET in North America, SDH in the rest of the world, and it dramatically simplifies the world of high-speed transport. How does it do this That s the subject of Two.
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Source: Sonet / SDH Demystified
CHAPTER
SONET Basics
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