barcode generator in vb.net 2010 Figure 2-6 A 90x90-byte SONET frame. in Software

Maker Code 3/9 in Software Figure 2-6 A 90x90-byte SONET frame.

Figure 2-6 A 90x90-byte SONET frame.
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Figure 2-7 Serial transmission of data in SONET.
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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SONET Basics
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of this book, like a timeline in a children s book on dinosaurs (the Jurassic, the Triassic, the Plesiochronous, the Miocene, and so on). Of course, the careful reader will realize that because the rows are transmitted serially, the many overhead bytes do not all appear at the beginning of the transmission of the frame; instead, they are peppered along the bit stream, like highway markers. For example, the first two bytes of overhead in the Section Overhead are the framing bytes, followed by the single-byte signal identifier. The next 87 bytes are user payload, followed by the next byte of Section Overhead; in other words, 87 bytes of user data are between the first three Section Overhead bytes and the next one! The designers of SONET were thinking clearly the day they came up with this because each byte of data appears just when it is needed. That is truly remarkable! Also, notice the dotted lines descending from the bottom of the frame in Figure 2-5. This is to indicate one of the rather remarkable things about SONET. As we said earlier, because of the unique way that the user s data is mapped into the SONET frame, the data can actually start pretty much anywhere in the payload envelope. The payload is always the same number of bytes, which means that if it starts late in the payload envelope, it may well run into the payload envelope of the next frame! In fact, this happens more often than not, but it s OK SONET is equipped to handle this odd behavior. We ll discuss this shortly.
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The SONET frame consists of 810 eight-bit bytes, and like the T-1 frame, it is transmitted once every 125 sec (8,000 frames per second). Doing the math, this works out to an overall bit rate of 810 bytes/frame 8 bits/byte 8,000 frames/second 51.84 Mbps,
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the fundamental transmission rate of the SONET STS-1 frame. That s a lot of bandwidth 51.84 Mbps is slightly more than a 44.736 Mbps DS-3, a respectable carrier level by anyone s standard. What if more bandwidth is required, however What if the user wants to transmit multiple DS-3s or perhaps a single signal that requires more than 51.84 Mbps, such as a 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet signal Or for that matter, what about a payload that requires less than 51.84 Mbps In those cases, we have to invoke more of SONET s magic.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
SONET Basics
SONET Basics
The STS-N Frame
In situations where multiple STS-1s are required to transport multiple payloads, all of which fit in an STS-1 s payload capacity (such as the multiple DS-3s shown in Figure 2-8), SONET enables the creation of what are called STS-N frames, where N represents the number of STS-1 frames that are multiplexed together to create the frame. If three STS-1s are combined, the result is an STS-3. In this case, the three STS-1s are brought into the multiplexer and byte interleaved to create an STS-3, as shown in Figure 2-9. In other words, the multiplexer selects the first byte of frame one, followed by the first byte of frame two, followed by the first byte of frame three. Then it selects the second byte of frame one, followed by the second byte of frame two, followed by the second byte of frame three, and so on, until it has built an interleaved frame that is now three times the size of an STS-1: 9 270 bytes instead of 9 90. Interestingly (and impressively), the STS-3 is still generated 8,000 times per second. The technique described above is called a single stage multiplexing process because the incoming payload components are combined in a single step. A two-stage technique is also commonly used. For example, an STS-12 can be created in two ways. Twelve STS-1s can be combined in a single stage process to create the byte interleaved STS-12; alternatively, four groups of three STS-1s can be combined to form four STS-3s, which can then be further combined in a second stage to create a single STS-12. Obviously, two-stage multiplexing is more complex than its single-stage cousin, but both are used.
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