vb.net qr code Figure 2-8 DS-3 transmission in SONET. in Software

Creator Code 39 Extended in Software Figure 2-8 DS-3 transmission in SONET.

Figure 2-8 DS-3 transmission in SONET.
Decoding Code 39 Full ASCII In None
Using Barcode Control SDK for Software Control to generate, create, read, scan barcode image in Software applications.
Create Code 39 In None
Using Barcode encoder for Software Control to generate, create Code-39 image in Software applications.
Mux Mux
Code 3 Of 9 Scanner In None
Using Barcode reader for Software Control to read, scan read, scan image in Software applications.
Painting Code 39 Extended In Visual C#
Using Barcode encoder for VS .NET Control to generate, create Code 39 image in .NET applications.
Mux Mux
ANSI/AIM Code 39 Encoder In VS .NET
Using Barcode printer for ASP.NET Control to generate, create Code 3 of 9 image in ASP.NET applications.
Print Code 3 Of 9 In .NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET framework Control to generate, create Code 3 of 9 image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
Mux Mux
Print Code 39 In Visual Basic .NET
Using Barcode creation for .NET Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 39 image in .NET applications.
Bar Code Maker In None
Using Barcode creation for Software Control to generate, create barcode image in Software applications.
Three DS-3s in
Bar Code Drawer In None
Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create barcode image in Software applications.
Encoding Code 128 In None
Using Barcode generator for Software Control to generate, create Code-128 image in Software applications.
Three DS-3s out
Data Matrix Generator In None
Using Barcode creation for Software Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in Software applications.
UPCA Creator In None
Using Barcode generation for Software Control to generate, create GS1 - 12 image in Software applications.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
Print Identcode In None
Using Barcode drawer for Software Control to generate, create Identcode image in Software applications.
Drawing ANSI/AIM Code 128 In None
Using Barcode printer for Online Control to generate, create ANSI/AIM Code 128 image in Online applications.
SONET Basics
Code 39 Full ASCII Generator In None
Using Barcode creation for Office Word Control to generate, create Code 3 of 9 image in Word applications.
ANSI/AIM Code 39 Drawer In Java
Using Barcode generator for Android Control to generate, create Code 39 Full ASCII image in Android applications.
Figure 2-9 Byte interleaving in SONET.
Bar Code Recognizer In VS .NET
Using Barcode scanner for Visual Studio .NET Control to read, scan read, scan image in Visual Studio .NET applications.
ECC200 Creation In Java
Using Barcode printer for Java Control to generate, create DataMatrix image in Java applications.
1 2 3 270 Bytes Three STS-1s
Make GS1 128 In Java
Using Barcode generator for Android Control to generate, create USS-128 image in Android applications.
Draw Bar Code In Visual Studio .NET
Using Barcode generator for Reporting Service Control to generate, create bar code image in Reporting Service applications.
2
9 Bytes
One STS-3
NOTE: The overall bit rate of the STS-N system is N STS-1. However, the maximum bandwidth that can be transported is STS-1, but N of them can be transported! This is analogous to a channelized T-1.
The STS-Nc Frame
Let s go back to our Fast Ethernet example mentioned earlier. In this case, 51.84 Mbps is inadequate for our purposes because we have to transport the 100 Mbps Ethernet signal. For this we need what is known as a concatenated signal. One thing you can say about SONET: it doesn t hurt for polysyllabic vocabulary. On the long, lonesome stretches of outback highway in Australia, unsuspecting car drivers often encounter a devilish vehicle known as a road train.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
SONET Basics
SONET Basics
STS-1 Trucking
Figure 2-10 Transporting superrate frames in SONET.
STS-3 Trucking
STS-3 Trucking
STS-3 Trucking
STS-3c Trucking
Imagine an eighteen wheel tractor-trailer (see top drawing, Figure 2-10, for a remarkable illustration) barreling down the highway at 80 miles per hour, but now imagine that it has six trailers in effect, a 98-wheeler. These things give passing a whole new meaning. If a road train is rolling down the highway pulling three 50-foot trailers (middle drawing, Figure 2-10), then it has the ability to transport 150 feet of cargo, but only if the cargo is segmented into 50-foot chunks. But what if the trucker wants to transport a 150-foot long item, such as a Chernobyl-enhanced blue whale or a typical Australian earthworm In that case, a special trailer must be installed that provides room for the 150foot payload (bottom drawing, Figure 2-10). If you understand the difference between the second and third drawings, then you understand the difference between an STS-N and an STS-Nc. The word concatenate means to string together, which is exactly what we do when we need to create what is known as a super-rate frame in other words, a frame capable of transporting a payload that requires more bandwidth than an STS-1 can provide, such as our 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet frame. In the same way that an STS-N is analogous to a channelized T-1, an STS-Nc is analogous to an unchannelized T-1. In both cases, the customer is given the full bandwidth that the pipe provides; the difference lies in how the bandwidth is parceled out to the user.
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
SONET Basics
2
Overhead Modifications in STS-Nc Frames
When we transport multiple STS-1s in an STS-N frame, we assume that they may arrive from different sources. As a result, each frame is inserted into the STS-N frame with its own unique set of overhead. When we create a concatenated frame, though, the data that will occupy the combined bandwidth of the frame derives from the same source. For example, if we pack a 100 Mbps Fast Ethernet signal into a 155.53 Mbps STS-3c frame, we only need to pack one signal. It s pretty obvious, then, that we don t need three sets of overhead to guide a single frame through the maze of the network1. For example, each frame has a set of bytes that keep track of the payload within the synchronous payload envelope. Because we only have one payload, we can eliminate two of them. The Path Overhead that is unique to the payload can similarly be reduced because a column of it is available for each of the three formerly individual frames. In the case of the pointer that tracks the floating payload, the first pointer continues to perform that function; the others are changed to a fixed binary value that is known to receiving devices as a concatenation indication. The details of these bytes will be covered later in the overhead section.
Copyright © OnBarcode.com . All rights reserved.