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Transporting Sub-Rate Payloads: Virtual Tributaries
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Let s now go back to our Australian road-train example. This time he is carrying individual cans of Fosters Beer. From what I remember about the last time I was dragged into an Aussie pub (and it isn t much), the driver could probably transport about six cans of Fosters per 50-foot trailer. So now we
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A significant chicken-and-egg problem arises in the flow of this book, and I apologize to the reader up front for it. In order to understand basic SONET frame structures and functions, the details of the SONET overhead should be discussed first. To understand the functions of the SONET overhead bytes, though, the basics of SONET frame structures and functions should be introduced first. I have chosen to do the frame structures and functions first, the result of which is that readers may find themselves flipping back and forth between the two sections. Sorry about that!
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have a technique for carrying payloads smaller than the fundamental 50foot payload size. This analogy works well for understanding SONET s ability to transport payloads that require less bandwidth than 51.84 Mbps, such as T-1 or traditional 10 Mbps Ethernet. When a SONET frame is modified for the transport of sub-rate payloads, it is said to carry virtual tributaries (VTs). Simply put, the payload envelope is chopped into smaller pieces that can then be individually used for the transport of multiple lower-bandwidth signals.
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Creating Virtual Tributaries
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To create a virtual tributary-ready STS, the synchronous payload envelope is subdivided. An STS-1 comprises 90 columns of bytes, four of which are reserved for overhead functions (Section, Line, and Path). This leaves 86 for actual user payload. To create virtual tributaries, the payload capacity of the SPE is divided into seven, 12-column pieces called virtual tributary groups. Math majors will be quick to point out that 7 12 84, leaving two unassigned columns. These columns, shown in Figure 2-11, are indeed unassigned and are given the rather silly name of fixed stuff. Now comes the fun part. Each of the VT groups can be further subdivided into one of four different VTs to carry a variety of payload types, as shown in Figure 2-12. A VT1.5, for example, can easily transport a 1.544 Mbps
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Figure 2-11 Fixed stuff in SONET frames configured to carry virtual tributaries.
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Columns 1 4, Section, Line, & Path Overhead
Columns 30 and 59, Fixed Stuff
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SONET Basics
Figure 2-12 Virtual tributaries in SONET.
VT Type Columns/VT Bytes/VT VTs/Group VTs/SPE
2
VT Bandwidth 1.728 2.304 3.456 6.912
VT1.5 VT2 VT3 VT6
3 4 6 12
27 36 54 108
4 3 2 1
28 21 14 7
signal within its 1.728 Mbps capacity, with a little room left over. A VT2, meanwhile, has enough capacity in its 2.304 Mbps structure to carry a 2.048 Mbps European E-1 signal, with a little room left over. A VT3 can transport a DS-1C signal, whereas a VT6 can easily accommodate a DS-2, again, each with a little room left over. One aspect of virtual tributaries that must be mentioned is the mix-andmatch nature of the payload. Within a single SPE, the seven VT groups can carry a variety of different VTs. However, each VT group can carry only one VT type. That little room left over comment earlier is, by the way, one of the key points that SONET and SDH detractors point to when criticizing them as legacy technologies, claiming that in these times of growing competition and the universal drive for efficiency, they are inordinately wasteful of bandwidth, given that they were designed when the companies that delivered them were monopolies and less concerned about such things than they are now. We will discuss this issue in a later section of the book. For now, though, suffice it to say that one of the elegant aspects of SONET is its ability to accept essentially any form of data signal, map it into standardized positions within the SPE frame, and transport it efficiently and at a very high speed to a receiving device on the other side of town or the other side of the world.
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