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chewy center, and emerge again on the other crunchy side on its way to a long-distance switch. Keep in mind that the local switch has no awareness of the existence of customers or telephony capability beyond its own cabinets. Thus, when it receives a telephone number that it is incapable of processing, it hands it off to a higher-order switch, with the implied message, Here I have no idea what to do with this, but I assume that you do. The long-distance switch receives the number from the local switch, processes the call, establishes the necessary connection, and passes the call on to the remote long-distance switch over a long-distance circuit. The remote long-distance switch passes the call to the remote local switch, which rings the destination telephone and ultimately, the call is established. Please note that in this pre-divestiture example, the originating local loop, local switch, long-distance switch, remote local loop, and all of the interconnect hardware and wiring belong to AT&T. They are all manufactured by Western Electric, based on a set of internal manufacturing standards that, if other manufacturers in the industry were there, would be considered proprietary. Because AT&T was the only game in town prior to divestiture, AT&T created the standard for transmission interfaces. Fast forward now to January 1, 1984, and put yourself into the mind of Bill McGowan, whose company s survival depended upon the successful implementation of Equal Access. Unfortunately, Equal Access had one very serious flaw. Keep in mind that because the post-1984 network was emerging from the darkness of monopoly control, all of the equipment that comprised the network infrastructure was bought at the proverbial company store and was, by the way, proprietary. Consider the newly re-created post-divestiture network model shown in Figure 1-3. At the local switch level, little has changed. At this point in time, only a single local services provider is available. At the long-distance level, however, a significant change has occurred. Instead of a single long-distance service provider called AT&T, three are now available: AT&T, MCI, and Sprint. The competitive mandate of Equal Access was designed to guarantee that a customer could freely select his or her long-distance provider of choice. If he or she wanted to use MCI s service instead of AT&T s, a simple call to the local telephone company s service representative would result in the generation of a service order that would cause the customer s local service to be logically disconnected from AT&T and reconnected to MCI. This way, long-distance calls placed by the subscriber would automatically be handed off to MCI. The problem of Equal Access to customers for the three long-distance providers was thus solved almost.
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Figure 1-3 The post-divestiture switching hierarchy and Equal Access.
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The proprietary nature of the network infrastructure that MCI and Sprint had to connect themselves to still existed and this was the root of McGowan s problem. The Equal Access amendment mandated that AT&T create space in its now RBOC-owned central offices for the interconnect equipment that MCI and Sprint required to establish points-of-presence (POPs) so that they could interconnect with the local switching equipment and therefore the customers. Unfortunately, because of the proprietary nature of the single-vendor world into which they were inserting themselves, both MCI and Sprint were required to buy AT&T s communications equipment in order to connect to the incumbent network infrastructure. Neither MCI nor Sprint were interested in pouring money into the pockets of AT&T, which is why McGowan had a problem. He did not want to be obligated to put jingle into AT&T s pockets simply to satisfy the interoperability requirement, so he took his case before a series of standards bodies, including the Interexchange Carrier Compatibility Forum, Bellcore (now Telcordia), ANSI, the CCITT (now the ITU-T), and a variety of other regional and international bodies. He argued his case effectively before them, claiming that requiring MCI and Sprint to purchase AT&T hardware was unfair. They agreed and tasked themselves to create a standard that would provide for true, open vendor interoperability. That standard, over the course of the ensuing eight years, became the Synchronous Optical Network (SONET) and ultimately, the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). It is synchronous because the send and receive devices for the most part
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