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precise intervals, the repeater has the ability to derive its own timing from the incoming signal. What happens, however, if the incoming bit stream should comprise a long series of zeroes which in digital parlance would be a flatline If that were to happen, the repeater would lose its ability to derive a synchronization signal from the data stream and errors could occur. To prevent this from happening, international transmission standards place certain stringent standards on the devices that originate bit streams. One of these standards, used in both SONET and SDH, dictates that all data carried in a frame will be scrambled prior to being transmitted, with the exception of the initial framing bytes. All other bytes pass through a processor that manipulates the data (for the bit-weenies in the audience, it uses the polynomial 1 x6 x7), changing it to ensure that an appropriate richness of ones occurs in the bitstream, avoiding the flatline problem. At the far end of the span, a similar process unscrambles the data, returning it to its original value. The initial framing bytes are not scrambled because they contain the unique framing code that is used to identify the beginning of the frame. The B1 byte is only defined in the first STS-1 of an STS-N signal. E1: The Orderwire byte is a 64-Kbps voice channel that can be used by technicians to communicate while troubleshooting between repeater spans. When building STS-N frames, the E1 byte is only defined in the first STS1 of the STS-N for obvious reasons. According to an informal survey conducted by the author, relatively few companies actually use the E1 byte. In order for it to work, an Electrical Order Wire (EOW) interface is required, usually a small rack-mounted device that interfaces between a traditional copper-seeking device such as a telephone or butt-in and the SONET E1 channel. F1: The F1 byte, called the user byte, is user configurable and can be employed for a variety of purposes. It is reserved for the use of the service provider as a transport byte for network management-application information, although many service providers today use it to transport maintenance communications and configuration data. Because the byte s specific use is not specified in a standard, it is extremely flexible, but lends very little to the overall goal of interoperability. D1, D2, D3: The Data Communications Channel (DCC) bytes provide a 192-Kbps communications channel between section-terminating devices and are used to transport operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning (OAM&P) information such as control signals, monitoring, alarm information, and so on. Although the DCC bytes are fully in alignment with the nascent Telecommunications Management Network (TMN)
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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standards that continue to evolve, it will probably be some time before their use is clearly defined among operators to ensure interoperability.
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The Line Overhead, shown in Figure 2-16, occupies the lower 18 bytes of the Transport Overhead (the first three columns of the STS-1). It is not used by the regenerators along the span as the Section Overhead is, but it is accessed by all other devices along the span. Compared to the functions found in the Section Overhead, the Line Overhead is significantly more complex. H1/H2: pointer bytes: To understand the role of the pointer bytes, it is first useful to talk about the international shipping business. Most people have driven past, flown over, or visited one of the world s major ports, where ships laden with international shipping containers (those big metal SeaLand boxes) arrive and tie up under those massive white cranes that look for all the world like the Imperial Walkers from George Lucas Star Wars series, shown in Figure 2-17. The cranes remove the containers and load them onto trucks or trains that pass below. If everything happens as it should, a good and careful crane operator can load the train quite effectively.
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