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Figure 2-16 SONET Line Overhead.
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SONET Basics
Figure 2-17 Cranes at a commercial port.
2
Now imagine the following scenario. A number of ships are tied up at the dock behind the crane, and their deck crews are each unloading the containers and placing them on a belt that takes them to the top of the crane to be loaded onto a train that is passing below, as shown in Figure 2-18. The train, incidentally, is an endless train of flatbed cars that passes below the crane at a never-changing speed. The crane operator s job is to pick up an arriving container, position it over the train, and place it on a passing train car. As we said earlier, if all goes well, the operator should be able to place a container squarely on each car, ensuring that no train cars are empty. That, after all, would be wasteful. Of course, a number of variables could affect the efficacy with which the operator does his or her job. For example, it is most certainly the case that the deckhands unloading the ships operate at different speeds and with different degrees of efficiency. Some will do so extremely quickly, whereas others will be less organized. The result is that in some cases the containers will arrive at the top of the crane at a regular pace, giving the operator a steady stream of payload to work with. Alternatively, they may arrive sporadically, which could lead to the occasional empty train car. And of course, some days the crews may want to get off the ship as soon as possible, which means that containers could arrive at the top of the crane faster than the operator can handle them. In that case, the crane operator would need a place to put the excess containers until the pace abates enough to handle them. The operator, then, has two techniques available to him or her to load the train. The first is to carefully match the loading rate of the arriving containers to the unchanging speed of the train, assuming that the container arrival rate is adequate to allow this technique, which in the end will
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SONET Basics
SONET Basics
Figure 2-18 Loading the crane.
ensure that no flatbed will ever be empty. The problem still exists, of course, that traffic could arrive too fast, in which case some kind of parking area is needed. This is clearly complicated, requires a very talented operator, and assumes that the loading crews work very closely in order to synchronize their efforts to ensure maximum port loading and unloading operational efficiency. The second technique is to simply not worry about it. In fact, as long as the operator knows that the crane is positioned correctly above the train as it passes underneath, he or she doesn t even have to look. As a container arrives, the operator simply drops it, and it lands on the train wherever it lands with little regard for alignment on a train car-by-train car basis, as shown in Figure 2-19. In this case, a lot of space on the train is wasted, but the upside is that the port assumes that train car space is cheap and that they save money because they don t have to worry about overly skilled (and therefore expensive) stevedores or crane operators. If the containers arrive efficiently, great; if not, well, no big deal. Of course, it is potentially a big deal for the customer at the other end of the train line who is looking for his or her payload. The customer has been told that the shipment is on train car number 576. A well-run train system would clearly load the containers squarely on the cars, yet when the car arrives at the customer s location and he or she looks at the head of the car, as shown in Figure 2-20, all the customer sees is empty space. The
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