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Figure 2-19 Wasted space when loading the crane.
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Figure 2-20 Finding the payload n the SONET train.
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customer s cargo is there, of course: it s just 37 feet to the right. Because the customer expects it to be aligned with the train car, he or she doesn t think to look over there.
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What if we had a slightly different system, as shown in Figure 2-21 In this case, we tell the customer that his or her cargo may not begin right at the head of the train car. What will be at the head of the train car, however, is a bill of lading that tells the customer exactly where he or she has to look to see the beginning of the shipment. That way the complexity of guaranteeing the exact location of the container is eliminated. Furthermore, if the container should shift back and forth slightly on the train car as it makes its way down the track, no problem: every time the car goes through a switching yard, a conductor checks its location and updates the information in the bill of lading before the car leaves the yard. If you understand this analogy, then you understand how SONET uses payload pointers, the first two bytes in the Line Overhead. H1 and H2 are used to measure the offset, or distance, that exists between the pointer and the beginning of the payload. The reason for its existence is relatively simple: because of slight differences in timing signals between the devices that a SONET signal passes through as it makes its way across the network, or because of the slight signal phase variation (known as jitter) that can take place, the actual starting point of the signal can vary by as much as a byte forward and backward. The payload pointer has the ability to adjust itself according to the relative position of the payload, thus giving a receiving device the ability to actually find the payload in a received frame. How it does this is rather interesting.
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Figure 2-21 Fixing the problem with a manifest pointer!
Your cargo is 37 feet To the right!
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SONET Basics
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The 16 bits of the payload pointer are divided into three functional groupings. The first four bits of the H1 byte are called the New Data Flag (NDF). When a payload is constructed (and a new pointer value is introduced), the initial value of the four bits is 0110, as shown in Figure 2-22. Should the pointer value change due to an adjustment in the position of the payload, the NDF is inverted (0110 becomes 1001). This inversion indicates to a receiving device that the payload has shifted, and to stand by for instructions, which follow. The remaining 10 bits, some of which are the actual pointer, stay the same, always pointing to the first byte of the Path Overhead and therefore to the beginning of the payload. The next two bits are always set to zero, and serve as nothing more than place keepers in the overall structure of the pointer. The remaining 10 bits, which straddle the H0 and H1 bytes, are the actual payload pointer. These bytes take on a specific binary value between zero and 783 (the size of the STS frame, 810, minus the 27 bytes of Transport Overhead). For example, if the pointer value is 0100001011, the binary equivalent of decimal number 267, the first byte of the Path Overhead (and therefore the payload) begins exactly 267 bytes after the H3 byte, which will be discussed shortly. Thus, a receiving SONET device only has to be able to stomp its foot like a horse and count in order to find the payload it may be looking for.
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