vb.net qr code Figure 2-23 Locked mode in SONET. in Software

Printing Code 39 in Software Figure 2-23 Locked mode in SONET.

Figure 2-23 Locked mode in SONET.
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case the active ring that transports customer traffic, flows in a clockwise direction, which means that data transmitted from multiplexer A to multiplexer B would have a single-hop path to get there. The inner ring, which flows in a counter-clockwise direction, is the protect or backup path; it carries no user data, but monitors the condition of the network by paying close attention to alarm data carried in the APS bytes. Let s assume that a terrorist backhoe driver, shown in Figure 2-25, craftily cuts the active fiber between multiplexers B and C as shown in Figure 2-26. When this occurs, a number of rather interesting events take place. The first thing that happens is that in short order, multiplexer C detects a loss of signal. Please note that multiplexer C has no idea what caused the loss, it just knows that the signal s gone. It immediately goes into recover mode. It first transmits an alarm indication signal (AIS) to its next downstream neighbor, multiplexer D, which will in turn pass it on to the next device in the ring. Next, multiplexer C sends an upstream far-end receive failure (FERF) notification on the backup span to multiplexer B, telling the upstream device that it is no longer receiving a signal from it for some reason. Next, it initiates automatic-protection switching. Within 50 ms, the ring switches traffic from the primary ring to the protect ring, thus ensuring the integrity of transmitted traffic. This technique has one downside; whereas traffic
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Figure 2-24 Dual counter-rotating ring in SONET.
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Figure 2-25 The dreaded backhoe.
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Figure 2-26 Single fiber cut.
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SONET Basics
SONET Basics
from multiplexer B to multiplexer C was a single hop, now it must endure three hops, leading to an increase in overall delay, which could be problematic for some applications. Of course, the chance always exists that the backhoe driver is truly diligent or that the two fibers are diversely routed on either side of the same conduit, and that as a result, both fibers are cut between B and C, as shown in Figure 2-27. In this case, something that borders on magic happens: the ring heals, as illustrated in Figure 2-28. Because of the APS monitoring data that is transported around the ring as part of the SONET overhead, B and C soon realize that they no longer have continuity between them in either the upstream or downstream direction, so they wrap the two rings internally, resulting in the creation of a single ring shaped like a gnocchi. As a result, not even the destruction of both fibers stops transmission around the ring. Survivability is clearly one of the greatest advantages that SONET brings to the network domain, and one of the reasons that its predicted imminent demise may not be so imminent. The APS process is enormously complex, and its capabilities and inner workings are only touched on here. For additional information, readers should consult ANSI T1.105.01-1998, an impressive document that covers the roles and responsibilities of the 16 APS bits.
Figure 2-27 Dual fiber cut.
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