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SONET Basics
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Figure 2-29 Location of Path Overhead.
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First byte of Path Overhead and payload
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Figure 2-30 Path Overhead bytes.
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J1: Trace
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B3: BIP-8
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C2: Signal Label
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G1: Path Status
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F2: User Channel
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H4: Indicator
Z3: Growth
Z4: Growth
Z5: Tandem Connection
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SONET Basics
SONET Basics
B3: Path BIP-8: Like the BIP-8 that we saw in the Section and Line Overhead, the Path BIP-8 is used to error-check the content of the previous SPE before being scrambled. As with the Line Overhead (in reference to the Section Overhead), the Path BIP-8 does not include the Line or Section Overhead in its calculation. C2: STS path signal label: The signal label byte is used to tell a receiving device what is actually contained in the SPE that is arriving in terms of the actual construction of the payload. This permits the simultaneous transport of multiple traffic types. When SONET was first released, the transport of multiple traffic types was not an issue of grandiose proportions. After all, voice was almost universally the only traffic type transported in early versions of the standard, so many manufacturers hard coded the C2 byte to a binary value of 02, the standard coding for virtual tributaries (see Figure 2-31). As the standard matured and end user devices became sophisticated enough to accept and package multiple traffic types, the need to label the content of individual SPEs became more important. Many of the manufacturers had to go back and offer fixes to overcome the limitation of a single payload mapping value. G1: path status: As it s name implies, the path status byte is used to communicate the overall transmission status of the duplex circuit to the originating device. In practice, it transports two indicators: the Path Remote Error Indicator (REI-P) in bits one through four, and the Path
Figure 2-31 Signal label mapping.
Value 00 01 02 03 04 12 13 14 15 16 CF FE
S PE Content Unequipped not used for live data Equipped non-specific payload Virtual tributaries Virtual tributaries in locked mode Asynchronous DS3 mapping Asynchronous DS-4NA mapping ATM cells DQDB cells Asynchronous FDDI HDLC frames over SONET (used for IP transport) Experimental value for IP transported in PPP frames Test signal mapping, per ITU Recommendation G.707
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SONET Basics
2
Remote Defect Indicator (RDI-P) in bits five through seven, leaving a single unused bit. F2: path user channel: The network service provider can use this byte to transport communications information such as network management data. H4: indicator: The H4 byte is used to indicate the manner in which payload is mapped into an SPE, such as when the SPE is subdivided into virtual tributaries. At one time, the H4 byte was used as a way to indicate the boundaries between cells, but this mapping is no longer supported. One use that is still supported, even though the technology has fallen out of favor, is to carry link status information for distributed-queue dual-bus (DQDB) networks. Z3 5: growth: Amazing how much DQDB continues to rear its head. These growth bytes can be used to transport DQDB layer-management data, but otherwise are reserved for future, as yet undetermined, applications. Z5: tandem connection: My favorite telecommunications joke states, the best thing about standards is that there so many to choose from. The American National Standards Institute (ANSI) has stipulated that the Z5 byte can be used as a maintenance channel for the transport of information between tandem switches, as well as a data communications channel (DCC) for path level management information. Telcordia (formerly Bellcore) still defines Z5 as a growth byte. That concludes our discussion of the SONET overhead. It s a far cry from the utility of a frame bit in a T-1 frame or the reuse made of the 24 frame bits in an extended superframe, wouldn t you agree It provides for the delivery of an enormous amount of ability and once again points to the longevity of the standard in spite of claims to the contrary. One area that has not yet been discussed in this section is network timing.
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