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Through timing: Similar to line timing, a device that is through timed receives its synchronization signal from the incoming bit stream, but then forwards that timing signal to other devices in the network. The timing signal then passes through the intermediate device. Free running: In free-running timing systems, the SONET equipment in question does not have access to an external timing signal and must derive its timing from internal sources only.
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One final point about SONET should be made. When the standard is deployed over ring topologies, two timing techniques are used. Either external timing sources are depended upon to time network elements, or one device on the ring is internally timed (free running), whereas all the others are through-timed.
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SONET is a complex and highly capable standard designed to provide highbandwidth transport for legacy and new protocol types alike. The overhead that it provisions has the ability to deliver a remarkable collection of network management, monitoring, and transport granularity. Some people believe that SONET is getting a little long in the tooth. Current estimates, however, indicate that the market for SONET equipment will grow more than 25 percent per year for the next five years a number that doesn t seem to indicate the death throes of a technological dinosaur. Without question, SONET is inefficient, wasteful, and inflexible. However, the services that it was designed to transport have no quarrel with its slothful ways, and most service providers have figured out clever and innovative ways to overcome the wasteful nature of the technology. As we progress, SONET will continue to provide high-bandwidth transport for some time to come and will advance in lockstep with the demands of the market. Will it eventually be relegated to the bone yard of technologies that have outlived their usefulness Of course. However, that day is well over the horizon as of yet. The interesting thing is that the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH) shares many of the same characteristics, as we will see in the next section. SONET, you will recall, is a limited North American standard, for the most part. The rest of the world awaits.
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SDH Basics
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SDH Basics
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The prior section of the book was devoted to SONET; in this section we examine the same issues as they relate to the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy (SDH). Many industry papers, books, and references refer to SDH as the international version of SONET; I prefer to view SONET as the North American version of SDH because far more countries rely on the SDH standard than on the SONET standard. That, however, is nothing more than a matter of preference and semantics, so we ll leave it at that.
A Bit of History
You will recall from earlier chapters that MCI s Bill McGowan played a major role in the development of the SONET standards. His efforts were also centrally important to the development of SDH. When McGowan went before the Interexchange Carrier Compatibility Forum (ICCF) to request a standard for mid-span meet following divestiture, the ICCF turned around and sent the petition on to the ANSI T1 Committee. ANSI, founded in 1918, was one of the original standards bodies in the U.S., yet it is unique in that it issues no standards itself; instead, it coordinates, facilitates, and approves standards created by other bodies, most of them in the private sector. ANSI also represents the U.S. at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ANSI comprises more than 300 individual standards bodies as well as a number of industry development groups. Among others, the ANSI organization staffs a number of subcommittees, one group of which falls under the T1 hierarchy. The T1 subcommittees manage ongoing research in telecommunications and computer technology. They include the T1E1 subcommittee, which is responsible for installation interfaces between carrier and customer equipment; T1M1, which is responsible for operations, administration, maintenance, and provisioning (OAM&P) standards; T1S1, which is responsible for signaling, network architecture, and services definition; T1Q1, which is responsible for performance; T1Y1, which governs standards related to specialized services such as video and data transport; and finally T1X1, which is responsible for timing, the definition of digital hierarchies, and network synchronization. As you might expect, both T1M1 (OAM&P) and T1X1 (synchronization and digital hierarchy) played special roles in the development of SONET and SDH standards. T1M1 coordinated the effort that guided the development of OAM&P standards for SONET, whereas T1X1 helped create standard SONET rates and the format of the transmission stream.
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