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Figure 3-2 The standard effort is smashed between the two behemoths.
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When ANSI took the SONET standard before the full ranks of the ITU, they were chagrined to learn that the ITU was not particularly motivated to give it the high-priority treatment that ANSI believed it deserved; this is because frankly, it didn t deserve it. Suddenly, SONET became something of a ship adrift. Just before the ship hit the rocks, however, something important happened. For various reasons related to international network interoperability, standards delegates from Japan and the United Kingdom began to attend the ANSI T1X1 meetings. Suddenly, T1X1 and the European Conference on European Post and Telegraph (CEPT, later to be renamed ETSI) cooperated, which had the added advantage of educating the ethnocentric U.S. delegates about the needs of Europe and the rest of the world.
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3
In early 1987, ANSI once again presented SONET to the ITU, and once again, in spite of all efforts to the contrary, it was rejected because of its North America-centric basis in technology. It suggested a bit-interleaved base transmission speed of 49.92 Mbps, which worked well for the requirements of 45-Mbps DS-3 circuits, but did nothing for the European hierarchy whose base transmission rate was 139.264 Mbps. The Europeans countered with a request that the standard be modified to accommodate a base rate of 150 Mbps so that their systems could use it. After significant give and take, the Europeans offered up a counterproposal based on what would eventually become the STS-1 standard. The ITU then fell to the task of creating a single standard that would address the requirements of both the North American and European systems. They presented both the North American and the European proposals to the membership, and as might be expected, the North American proposal was quickly voted to second-class status. Instead of dismissing the T1X1 effort as out of hand, CEPT simply asked them to make some minor changes to it. Rather than having 49.92 Mbps as the base transmission rate, they asked that the rate be changed to 51.84 Mbps and that a byteinterleaved multiplexing technique be used instead of a bit-interleaved one. The U.S. considered the changes and agreed to them. In February of 1988, T1X1 agreed to the modifications, and SONET was on its way to becoming an internationally accepted standard. ANSI T1X1 kicked off the process with the publication of T1X1.4/87-014R4, the standard for a single-mode fiber optical interface, and T1X1.4/87-505R4, which defined transmission formats and optical transmission speeds. A new group, T1X1.5 (Optical Hierarchical Interfaces) was created to resolve any lingering comments or disputes about the newly proposed standards; a final approval was received in June of 1988. The ITU published the international version of the standards in the 1988 CCITT Blue Books as G.707, G.708, and G.709. ANSI went on to further refine the standards with the publication of T1.105-1988 and T1.106-1988, commonly referred to as the SONET Phase 1 documentation. The ITU later urged the creation of an OC-3-based international version; this enabled the rest of the world to use the standard as SDH for multiplexing the widely utilized 34-Mbps transmission signal. I mentioned earlier that ANSI issued the Phase 1 documentation in late 1988. When the standard was first going to be published, the decision was made to publish it in phases because of the magnitude of its undertaking. Phase 1, then, addressed issues related to interoperability: frame structure, payload and overhead design, physical layer optical requirements, and payload content mappings. Phase 2 proposed OAM&P standards as well as a standard for an electrical interface to the optical SONET standard. Phase
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