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STM Frame Overhead
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The overhead in an STM frame is very similar to that of an STS-1 frame, although the nomenclature varies somewhat. Instead of Section, Line, and
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Figure 3-4 STM-1 frame.
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Overhead
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Figure 3-5 Comparison of SDH and SONET.
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SDH Level STM-1 STM-16 STM-64 (STM-256)
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SONET Level OC-3 OC-48 OC-192 OC-768
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Bandwidth 155.52 Mbps 2.488 Gbps 9.954 Gbps 39.81 Gbps
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SDH Basics
SDH Basics
Path Overhead to designate the different regions of the network that the overhead components address, SDH uses Regenerator Section, Multiplex Section, and Path Overhead, as shown in Figure 3-6. The Regenerator Section Overhead (RSOH) occupies the first three rows of nine bytes, and the Multiplex Section Overhead occupies (MSOH) the final five. Row four is reserved for the pointer. As in SONET, the Path Overhead floats gently on the payload tides, rising and falling in response to phase shifts. Functionally, these overhead components are identical to their SONET counterparts; the table in Figure 3-7 illustrates the two.
Overhead Details
Because an STM-1 is three times as large as an STS-1, it has three times the overhead capacity nine columns instead of three (plus Path Overhead). This overhead is shown in Figure 3-8 and described in the following section; an STS-3c frame is shown in Figure 3-9 for comparative purposes.
Figure 3-6 Regions of the SDH network.
Regenerator Section Overhead Segments
Intermediate Mux
Multiplex Section Overhead
Multiplex Section Overhead
Path Overhead
Figure 3-7 SDH vs. SONET nomenclature.
SDH Nomenclature Regenerator Section Overhead Multiplex Section Overhead Path Overhead
SONET Nomenclature Section Overhead Line Overhead Path Overhead
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SDH Basics
Figure 3-8 STM overhead.
A1 B1 D1 A1 MDU MDU A1 MDU MDU A2 E1 D2 A2 MDU MDU A2 R R J0 F1 D3 RNU RNU R RNU RNU R
3
J1 B3 C2 G1
AU-n Pointer B2 D4 D7 D10 S1 B2 R R R Z1 B2 R R R Z1 K1 D5 D8 D11 Z2 R R R R Z2 R R R R M1 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 R R R R RNU R R R R RNU
F2 H4 F3 K3 N1
RNU: Reserved for National Use MDU: Media-Dependent Use R: Reserved
Figure 3-9 STS-3c frame.
A1 B1 D1 H1 B2 D4 D7 D10 S1
A1 R R H1 B2 R R R Z1
A1 R R H1 B2 R R R Z1
A2 E1 D2 H2 K1 D5 D8 D11 Z2
A2 R R H2 R R R R Z2
A2 R R H2 R R R R M1
J0 F1 D3 H3 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2
R R R H3 R R R R R
R R R H3 R R R R R
J1 B3 C2 G1 F2 H4 F3 K3 N1
(It might be helpful to review the layout of a concatenated SONET frame before proceeding.) Notice the subtle but important differences in the overhead of the two. The first row of the RSOH is its SONET counterpart, with the exception of the last two bytes, which are labeled as being reserved for
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SDH Basics
SDH Basics
national use and are specific to the PTT administration that implements the network. In SONET they are not yet assigned. The second row is different from SONET in that it has three bytes reserved for media-dependent implementation (differences in the actual transmission medium, whether copper, coaxial, or fiber) and the final two reserved for national use. As before, they are not yet definitively assigned in the SONET realm. The final row of the RSOH also sports two bytes reserved for mediadependent information, as they are reserved in SONET. All other RSOH functions are identical between the two. The MSOH in the SDH frame is almost exactly the same as that of the SONET Line Overhead, with one exception: row nine of the SDH frame has two bytes reserved for national administration use. They are also reserved in the SONET world. The pointer in an SDH frame is conceptually identical to that of a SONET pointer, although it has some minor differences in nomenclature. In SDH, the pointer is referred to as an Administrative Unit (AU) pointer, referring to the standard naming convention described earlier.
Regenerator Section Overhead
The RSOH occupies the first three rows of the first nine columns of an STM frame. The bytes contained in this overhead and their functions are described in the following section and shown in Figure 3-10. A1, A2: The A1 and A2 bytes provide a unique framing pattern at the beginning of the frame that is used to identify the beginning of the frame to receiving equipment for synchronization purposes. The pattern is the hexadecimal number 0xF628, which in binary is 1111 0110 0010 1000. When transmitting STM-n frames, the A1 and A2 bytes must appear in the overhead of each STM-1 in the STM-n frame. J0: A unique number called the STM-1 ID identifies every STM-1. It is carried in the J0 byte and is used to identify the originating office of a frame
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