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Figure 3-10 Regenerator Section Overhead.
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SDH Basics
3
as it makes its way across the network. Because SDH transmission can involve multiple levels of interleaved multiplexing, the J0 byte provides a way to uniquely identify each frame of data. B1: The B1 byte is known as the Bit-Interleaved Parity byte (BIP-8). It provides an 8-bit parity check that is used for error detection. In practice, the parity check is performed across all bytes of the prior frame and placed in the B1 byte of the current frame prior to scrambling. E1: The Orderwire byte is a 64-Kbps voice channel that can be used by technicians to communicate while troubleshooting between repeater spans. When building STM-n frames, the E1 byte is only defined in the first STM of the STM-n for obvious reasons. F1: The F1 byte, called the user byte, is user configurable and can be employed for a variety of purposes. It is reserved for the use of the service provider as a transport byte for network management application information, although many service providers today use it to transport maintenance communications and configuration data. Because the byte s specific use is not specified in a standard, it is extremely flexible, but lends very little to the overall goal of interoperability. D1, D2, D3: The Data Communications Channel (DCC) bytes provide a 192-Kbps communications channel between section-terminating devices and are used to transport operations, administration, and maintenance (OAM) information such as control signals, monitoring, alarm information, and so on. Although the DCC bytes are fully in alignment with the nascent Telecommunications Management Network (TMN) standards that continue to evolve, it will probably be some time before their use is clearly defined among operators to ensure interoperability.
Multiplex Section Overhead
The MSOH comprises the final four rows of the first nine columns of the STM-1, as shown in Figure 3-11. These overhead bytes are described in the following section. B2: B2 is another bit-interleaved parity byte and is used to carry errorchecking information. It calculates its value based on the MSOH (it does not include the RSOH) and payload of the previous frame before it is scrambled for transmission. The information is then placed in the current frame before it is scrambled. The BIP-8 is required for all STMs in an STM-n. K1/K2: Like SONET, one of the principal advantages of SDH is its capability to detect a failure in the network and switch traffic to a backup trans-
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SDH Basics
SDH Basics
B2 D4 D7 D10 S1 B2 R R R Z1 B2 R R R Z1 K1 D5 D8 D11 Z2 R R R R Z2 R R R R M1 K2 D6 D9 D12 E2 R R R R RNU R R R R RNU
Figure 3-11 Multiplex Section Overhead.
mission span automatically if one is available, ensuring protection of customer data. This technique is called automatic protection switching. If the network is deployed across a ring architecture, the K1 and K2 bytes are used to switch from one ring to another. D4-D12: These nine bytes comprise a 576-Kbps message channel that SDH network elements can use to transport network management (OAM) messages. The information carried in these bytes is similar to that carried in the Regenerator Section Layer s Data Com channels, but in this case is specific to the Multiplex Section Layer. These bytes are only defined for the first STM in an STM-n. Like the Regenerator Section Overhead s DCC bytes, they are designed to use TMN protocols. S1/Z1: This byte is still in development in terms of its specific responsibilities. Of its eight bits, the last four (bits five through eight) have been reserved for the transport of timing information that permits a network element to choose a specific clock source based on its own selection parameters as a way to prevent timing problems within the network. This byte is defined in the first STM of an STM-n only; all remaining S1 bytes are designated as Z (growth) bytes. M0/M1/Z2: This particular byte is something of a chameleon in that it can take on a number of roles depending on the nature of the payload with which it is associated. If the payload being transported is a single STM-1, then the byte becomes the M0 byte and is used for error control and is called the Remote Error Indication-Line Level (REI-L). In earlier versions of SDH, one of the signals that was closely monitored was called a Far-End Block Error (FEBE), which indicated the presence of bit-level errors. It has been replaced by the REI-L, and its job is to transport the BIP-8 information back to the presumed source of the problem. The last four bits of the M0 byte are used for this function; the first four are undefined. If the byte is not used for M0 or M1 functionality, it is designated as a growth byte (Z2).
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