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SDH Tributary Units
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Similar to what we saw with SONET virtual tributaries, SDH tributary units are designed to carry payloads that operate at speeds lower than the SDH base rate. In fact, the SDH and SONET tributary units are perfectly aligned with each other, as shown in Figure 3-14. Like the virtual tributaries of SONET, SDH tributary units are ganged together to form a multiframe for transmission. Each begins with an overhead byte (V1, V2, V3, or V4), and naturally the multiframe begins with the
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Figure 3-14 SDH tributary units.
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TU Format TU-11 TU-12 TU-2
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Bytes/Frame 27 36 108
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Payload DS-1 E-1 DS-2
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SDH Basics
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SDH Basics
V1 byte. The Multiframe Indicator Octet (H4) indicates the phase of the multiframe signal, which helps receiving devices locate the payload upon receipt. A single STM-1 can transport 84 TU-11s, similar to what we saw with SONET. Byte-interleaved transport is used in these systems, so alignment and the role of the AU-4 pointer are important. As in SONET, the locations of the tributary data are fixed and well known, and therefore relatively easy to find. Figure 3-15, adapted from Goralski, shows the compatible payload mappings between SONET and SDH. The table serves as a useful tool for comparing the two environments. We have now covered both SONET and SDH in some detail. In the next few sections we will discuss corollary technologies, including optical transport and ATM.
Figure 3-15 Payload mapping comparison in SDH and SONET.
Payload DS-1 E-1 DS-1C DS-2 E-3 DS-3 FDDI DS-4NA DQDB ATM Cells
Bandwidth 1.544 Mbps 2.048 Mbps 3.152 Mbps 6.312 Mbps 34.368 Mbps 44.736 Mbps 125 Mbps 139.264 Mbps 149.760 Mbps 149.760 Mbps
In STS-1 VT1.5 VT2 VT3 VT6 NA STS-1 NA NA NA STS-1
In STS-Nc NA NA NA NA NA NA STS-3c STS-3c STS-3c STS-3c
In AU-3 VC-11/12 VC-12 NA VC-2 VC-3 VC-3 NA NA NA VC-3
In AU-4 VC-11/12 VC-12 NA VC-2 VC-3 VC-3 C-4 VC-4 C-4 VC-4
NA: Not applicable.
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SDH Basics
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Source: Sonet / SDH Demystified
CHAPTER
Overview of Optical Technology
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Overview of Optical Technology
4
In the final analysis, SONET is a physical layer standard for the transmission of high-speed, multiplexed data across an optical network. This section discusses the fundamentals of optical network technologies, including the basics of fiber optics, the fundamentals of optical networking, common transmission impairments, Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM), and emerging optical switching and routing technologies.
Early Technology Breakthroughs
In 1878, two years after perfecting his speaking telegraph (which became the telephone), Alexander Graham Bell created a device that transmitted the human voice through the air for distances up to 200 meters. The device, which he called the Photophone, used carefully angled mirrors to reflect sunlight onto a diaphragm that was attached to a mouthpiece, as shown in Figure 4-1. At the receiving end (Figure 4-2), the light was concentrated by a parabolic mirror onto a selenium resistor, which was connected to a battery and speaker. The diaphragm vibrated when struck by the human voice, causing the intensity of the light striking the resistor to vary. The selenium resistor, in turn, caused the current flow to vary in concert with the varying sunlight, causing the received sound to come out of the speaker with remarkable fidelity. This represented the birth of optical transmission.
Figure 4-1 Photophone transmitter.
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