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Overview of Optical Technology
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Figure 4-8 Optical fiber anatomy.
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coherent laser light in the 1950s; researchers at Bell Laboratories in Murray Hill, New Jersey took it to the next level by attempting to craft practical applications for the technology. In 1962, the first semiconductor lasers were created; these became the focal point for transmission over fiber optics. Of course, optical transmission in the early days was limited in its capabilities. Even though modulated light has an information carrying capacity that is orders of magnitude greater than radio, its earliest incarnations suffered tremendous signal loss over distance because of impurities in the glass and the limitations of the optoelectronics that drove the light signal. Consider the following analogy. If you look through a 2-foot square pane of window glass, it appears absolutely clear if the glass is clean, it is virtually invisible. However, if you turn the pane on edge and look through it from edge to edge, the glass appears to be dark green. Very little light passes from one edge to the other. In this example, you are looking through two feet of glass. Imagine trying to pass a high-bandwidth optical signal through 40 or more kilometers of that glass! In 1966, Charles Kao and Charles Hockham at the U.K. s Standard Telecommunication Laboratory (now part of Nortel Networks) published their seminal work, demonstrating that optical fiber could be used to carry information, provided its end-to-end signal loss could be kept below 20 dB per kilometer. Keeping in mind that the decibel scale is logarithmic, 20 dB of loss means that 99 percent of the light would be lost over each kilometer of distance. Only 1 percent would actually reach the receiver and that s only a 1-km run. Imagine the loss over today s fiber cables that are hundreds of kilometers long, if 20 dB was the modern performance criterion! Kao and Hockham proved that metallic impurities in the glass such as chromium, vanadium, iron, and copper were the primary cause for such high levels of loss. In response, glass manufacturers rose to the challenge and began to research the creation of ultrapure products. In 1970, Peter Schultz, Robert Maurer, and Donald Keck of Corning Glass Works (now Corning Corporation) announced the development of a
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Overview of Optical Technology
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Overview of Optical Technology
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glass fiber that offered better attenuation than the recognized 20-dB threshold. Today, fiber manufacturers offer fiber so incredibly pure that 10 percent of the light arrives at a receiver placed 50 kilometers away. Put another way, a fiber with 0.2 dB of measured loss delivers more than 60 percent of the transmitted light over a distance of 10 kilometers. Remember the windowpane example Imagine glass so pure that you could see clearly through a window 10 kilometers thick.
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Fundamentals of Optical Networking
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At their most basic level, optical networks require three fundamental components (shown in Figure 4-9): a source of light, a medium over which to transport it, and a receiver for the light. Additionally, regenerators, optical amplifiers, and other pieces of equipment in the circuit may be included. We will examine each of these generic components.
Optical Sources
Today, the most common sources of light for optical systems are either lightemitting diodes or laser diodes. Both are commonly used, although laser diodes have become more common for high-speed data applications because of their coherent signal. Although lasers have gone through several iterations over the years including ruby rod and helium-neon, semiconductor lasers became the norm shortly after their introduction in the early 1960s because of their low cost and high stability.
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