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Figure 4-9 Components of a typical optical network span.
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Overview of Optical Technology
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Light-emitting diodes come in two varieties: surface-emitting LEDs and edgeemitting LEDs. Surface-emitting LEDs, illustrated schematically in Figure 4-10, give off light at a wide angle, and therefore do not lend themselves to the more coherent requirements of optical data systems because of the difficulty involved in focusing their emitted light into the core of the receiving fiber. Instead, they are often used as indicators and signaling devices. They are, however, quite inexpensive and are therefore commonly found in more forgiving applications. An alternative to the surface-emitting LED is the edge-emitting device, shown in Figure 4-11. Edge emitters produce light at significantly narrower angles and have a smaller emitting area, which means that more of their emitted light can be focused into the core. They are typically faster devices than surface emitters, but do have a downside: they are temperaturesensitive, and must therefore be installed in environmentally controlled devices to ensure the stability of the transmitted signal.
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Figure 4-10 Surface emitting laser.
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Overview of Optical Technology
Overview of Optical Technology
Figure 4-11 Edge emitting laser.
Laser Diodes
Laser diodes represent the alternative to LEDs. A laser diode has a very small emitting surface, usually no larger than a few microns in diameter, which means that a great deal of the emitted light can be directed into the fiber. Because they represent a coherent source, the emission angle of a laser diode is extremely narrow. It is the fastest of the three devices. Many different types of laser diodes are available. The most common are the electro-absorptive modulated laser (EML), which combines a continuous wave laser with a modulating shutter device; the distributed feedback laser, which has an integrated grating assembly to maintain a constant output frequency; a vertical cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL, pronounced vick-sel ), which produces light from a round spot, resulting in a beam of light that is less prone to spread than a typical surface-emitting laser s output. VCSELs are low-power, low-cost, multifrequency devices. Finally, Fabry-Perot lasers are older devices that suffer a number of problems and are less commonly used. They tend to emit light at multiple, closely spaced wavelengths and are commonly called multimode lasers. Figure 4-12 schematically shows the emission characteristics of all three devices. The surface-emitting LED has the widest emission pattern, followed by the edge emitter; the laser diode represents the most coherent and therefore effective light generator. In fact, the graph of the output signal of an LED versus that of a laser is rather dramatic, as shown in Figure 4-13 (vertical axis not to scale).
Optical Fiber
When Peter Schultz, Donald Keck, and Robert Maurer began their work at Corning to create a low-loss optical fiber, they did so using a newly crafted process called inside vapor deposition (IVD). Whereas most glass is manufactured by melting and reshaping silica, IVD deposits various combinations of carefully selected compounds on the inside surface of a silica tube. The tube becomes the cladding of the fiber; the vapor-deposited compounds
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Overview of Optical Technology
Figure 4-12 Emission patterns of most common light sources.
4
Surface-emitting LED
Edge-emitting LED
Laser Diode
Figure 4-13 Representative pulse widths of laser, LED (not to scale).
Laser: 1 3 nm
LED: 30 50 nm
become the core. The compounds are typically silicon chloride (SiCl4) and oxygen (O2), which are reacted under heat to form a soft, sooty deposit of silicon dioxide (SiO2), as illustrated in Figure 4-14. In some cases, impurities such as germanium are added at this time to cause various effects in the finished product. In practice, the SiCl4 and O2 are pumped into the fused silica tube as gases; the tube is heated in a high-temperature lathe, causing
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