barcode generator in vb.net 2010 Figure 4-21 Narrow core optical fiber. in Software

Creation Code39 in Software Figure 4-21 Narrow core optical fiber.

Figure 4-21 Narrow core optical fiber.
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Overview of Optical Technology
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share a common minimum dispersion level; it is in the range of 1,310 nm, often referred to as the zero dispersion wavelength. Clearly, this is an ideal place to transmit data signals because dispersion effects are minimized here. As we will see later, however, other factors crop up that make this a less desirable transmission window than it appears. Material dispersion is a particularly vexing problem in single-mode fibers.
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Waveguide Dispersion Because the core and the cladding of a fiber have
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slightly different indices of refraction, the light that travels in the core moves slightly slower than the light that escapes into and travels in the cladding. This results in a dispersion effect that can be corrected by transmitting at specific wavelengths where material and waveguide dispersion actually occur at minimums.
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So what does all of this have to do with the high-speed transmission of voice, video, and data A lot, as it turns out. Understanding where attenuation and dispersion problems occur helps optical design engineers determine the best wavelengths at which to transmit information, taking into account distance, type of fiber, and other factors that can potentially affect the integrity of the transmitted signal. Consider the graph shown in Figure 4-22. It depicts the optical transmission domain, as well as the areas where problems arise. Attenuation (dB/km) is shown on the Y-Axis; wavelength (nm) is shown on the X-Axis. First of all, note that ofour transmission windows are in the diagram. The first one is at approximately 850 nm, the second at 1,310 nm, the third at 1,550 nm, and the fourth at 1,625 nm; the last two are labeled the C- and L-band, respectively. The 850 nm band was the first to be used because of its adherence to the wavelength at which the original LED technology operated. The second window at 1,310 nm enjoys low dispersion; this is where dispersion effects are minimized. 1,550 nm, the so-called C-Band, has emerged as the ideal wavelength at which to operate long-haul systems and systems upon which DWDM has been deployed because loss is minimized in this region and dispersion minimums can be shifted here. The relatively new L-Band has enjoyed some early success as the next effective operating window. A new band, the S-Band, is currently under development. Notice also that Rayleigh Scattering is shown to occur at or around 1,000 nm, whereas hydroxyl absorption by water occurs at 1,240 and 1,390 nm.
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Overview of Optical Technology
Overview of Optical Technology
OH Absorption Peak Second Window 1.39 m
Figure 4-22 Optical transmission domain.
Attenuation (dB/km)
2.5 2.0
First Window
Total Loss C Band 1520 1570 1400 L Band 1570 1620 1600
1.24 m
1.0 Rayleigh Scattering
0 800 1000 1200 Wavelength (nm)
Needless to say, network designers would be well served to avoid transmitting at any of the points on the graph where Rayleigh Scattering, high degrees of loss, or hydroxyl absorption have the greatest degree of impact. Notice also that dispersion, shown by the lower line, is at a minimum point in the second window, whereas loss, shown by the upper line, drops to a minimum point in the third window. In fact, dispersion is minimized in traditional single-mode fiber at 1,310 nm, whereas loss is at a minimum at 1,550 nm. So the obvious question becomes this: which one do you want to minimize loss or dispersion Luckily, this choice no longer has to be made. Today, dispersion-shifted fibers (DSF) have become common. By modifying the manufacturing process, engineers can shift the point at which minimum dispersion occurs from 1,310 nm to 1,550 nm, causing it to coincide with the minimum loss point such that loss and dispersion occur at the same wavelength. Unfortunately, although this fixed one problem, it created a new and potentially serious alternative problem. Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM) has become a mainstay technology for multiplying the available bandwidth in optical systems. When DWDM is deployed over dispersion-shifted fiber, serious nonlinearities occur at the zero dispersion point, which effectively destroy the DWDM signal. Think about it: DWDM
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