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Overview of Optical Technology
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relies on the capability to channelize the available bandwidth of the optical infrastructure and maintain some degree of separation between the channels. If dispersion is minimized in the 1,550-nm window, then the channels will effectively overlay each other in DWDM systems. Specifically, a problem called four-wave mixing creates sidebands that interfere with the DWDM channels, destroying their integrity. In response, fiber manufacturers have created non-zero dispersion-shifted fiber (NZDSF) that lowers the dispersion point to near zero and makes it occur just outside of the 1,550nm window. This eliminates the nonlinear four-wave mixing problem.
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Fiber Nonlinearities
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A classic business quote, imminently applicable to the optical networking world, observes in its success lie the seeds of its own destruction. As the marketplace clamors for longer transmission distances with minimal amplification, more wavelengths per fiber, higher bit rates, and increased signal power, a rather ugly collection of transmission impairments, known as fiber nonlinearities, rises to challenge attempts to make them happen. These impairments go far beyond the simple concerns brought about by loss and dispersion; they represent a significant performance barrier.
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The Power/Refractive Index Problem
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Two fundamental issues result in the bulk of these nonlinearities. The first (and perhaps most critical) is the fact that the refractive index of the core of an optical fiber is directly dependent upon the power of the optical signal that is being transmitted through it. The stronger the transmitted signal, the greater the power-dependent impairment. Because of this relationship, two actions can be taken to minimize the power-related problem. The first is to minimize the transmitted power of the signal, an action that will clearly reduce the impact of power-dependent signal degradation. This, however, has the downside of limiting the transmission distance and is a less-than-desirable option because lower power means that more amplifiers will be required over the long haul. Amplifiers also introduce other problems that are equally annoying. The second solution, which is in some ways more acceptable, is to maximize what is known as the fiber s effective area, a measure of the cross-sectional area of the fiber core that carries the transmitted signal. By broadening the effective area of the fiber, it has the capability to gather more of the transmitted signal and reduce the need for an
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Overview of Optical Technology
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Overview of Optical Technology
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inordinately strong signal. Lucent s TrueWave Fiber and Corning s Large Effective Area Fiber (LEAF ) are examples of specially engineered products designed to overcome this problem. The special relationship that exists between transmission power and the refractive index of the medium gives rise to four service-affecting optical nonlinearities: self-phase modulation (SPM), cross-phase modulation (XPM), four-wave mixing (FWM), and intermodulation. Self-Phase Modulation (SPM) When self-phase modulation occurs, chromatic dispersion kicks in to create something of a technological double whammy. As the light pulse moves down the fiber, its leading edge increases the refractive index of the core, causing a shift toward the blue end of the spectrum. The trailing edge, on the other hand, decreases the refractive index of the core, causing a shift toward the red end of the spectrum. This causes an overall spreading or smearing of the transmitted signal, a phenomenon known as chirp. It occurs in fiber systems that transmit a single pulse down the fiber and is proportional to the amount of chromatic dispersion in the fiber: the more chromatic dispersion, the more SPM. It is counteracted with the use of large effective area fibers. Cross-Phase Modulation (XPM) When multiple optical signals travel down the same fiber core, they both change the refractive index in direct proportion to their individual power levels. If the signals happen to cross, they will distort each other (remember as Egon warned in the movie Ghostbusters, Don t cross the streams! ). Although XPM is similar to SPM, it has one significant difference: whereas self-phase modulation is directly affected by chromatic dispersion, cross-phase modulation is only minimally affected by it. Large effective area fibers can reduce the impact of XPM. Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) Four-wave mixing is the most serious of the power/refractive index-induced nonlinearities today because it has a catastrophic effect on DWDM-enhanced systems. Because the refractive index of fiber is nonlinear and because multiple optical signals travel down the fiber in DWDM systems, a phenomenon known as third-order distortion can occur that seriously affects multichannel transmission systems. Thirdorder distortion causes harmonics to be created in large numbers that have the annoying habit of occurring where the actual signals are, resulting in their obliteration. These harmonics tend to become numerous according to the equation, 1/2(N3 N2)
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