barcode generator in vb.net 2010 Overview of Optical Technology in Software

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Overview of Optical Technology
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Stimulated Raman Scattering (SRS) SRS is something of a powerbased crosstalk problem. In SRS, high-power, short-wavelength channels tend to bleed power into longer-wavelength, lower-power channels. It occurs when a light pulse moving down the fiber interacts with the crystalline matrix of the silica, causing the light to be backscattered and shift the wavelength of the pulse slightly. Whereas SBS is a backward-scattering phenomenon, SRS is a two-way phenomenon, causing both backscattering and a wavelength shift. The result is crosstalk between adjacent channels. The good news is that SRS occurs at a much higher power level close to a watt. Furthermore, it can be effectively reduced through the use of large effective area fibers.
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An Aside: Optical Amplification
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As long as we are on the subject of Raman Scattering, we should introduce the concept of optical amplification. This may seem like a bit of a non sequitur, but it really isn t; true optical amplification actually uses a form of Raman Scattering to amplify the transmitted signal!
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Traditional Amplification and Regeneration Techniques
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In a traditional metallic analog environment, transmitted signals tend to weaken over distance. To overcome this problem, amplifiers are placed in the circuit periodically to raise the power level of the signal. This technique has a problem, however: in addition to amplifying the signal, amplifiers also amplify whatever cumulative noise has been picked up by the signal during its trip across the network. Over time, it becomes difficult for a receiver to discriminate between the actual signal and the noise embedded in the signal. Extraordinarily complex recovery mechanisms are required to discriminate between optical wheat and noise chaff. In digital systems, regenerators are used to not only amplify the signal, but to also remove any extraneous noise that has been picked up along the way. Thus, digital regeneration is a far more effective signal recovery methodology than simple amplification. Even though signals propagate significantly farther in optical fiber than they do in copper facilities, they are still eventually attenuated to the point
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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Overview of Optical Technology
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Overview of Optical Technology
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that they must be regenerated. In a traditional installation, the optical signal is received by a receiver circuit, converted to its electrical analog, regenerated, converted back to an optical signal, and transmitted onward over the next fiber segment. This optical-to-electrical-to-optical (O-E-O) conversion process is costly, complex, and time consuming. However, it is proving to be far less necessary as an amplification technique than it used to be because of true optical amplification that has recently become commercially feasible. Please note that optical amplifiers do not regenerate signals; they merely amplify. Regenerators are still required, albeit far less frequently. Optical amplifiers represent one of the technological leading edges of data networking. Instead of the O-E-O process, shown in Figure 4-23, optical amplifiers receive the optical signal, amplify it as an optical signal, and then retransmit it as an optical signal no electrical conversion is required, as shown in Figure 4-24. Like their electrical counterparts, however, they also amplify the noise; at some point, signal regeneration is required.
Optical Amplifiers: How They Work
It was only a matter of time before all-optical amplifiers became a reality. It makes intuitively clear sense that a solution that eliminates the electrical portion of the O-E-O process would be a good one; optical amplification is that solution. You will recall that SRS is a fiber nonlinearity that is characterized by high-energy channels pumping power into low-energy channels. What if
Figure 4-23 Optical-to-electricalto-optical conversion process.
Receiver
Regenerator
Transmitter
Electrical
Figure 4-24 Optical amplifier.
Amplifier
Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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