barcode generator in vb.net 2010 Overview of Optical Technology in Software

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Overview of Optical Technology
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light-collecting capability is therefore somewhat limited. A typical singlemode fiber generates an intense spot of light that is roughly 10 microns in diameter; the point upon which that light impinges upon the semiconductor amplifier is less than a micron in diameter, meaning that much of the light is lost. Other problems also crop up including polarization issues, reflection, and variable gain. As a result, these devices are not in widespread use; EDFAs and Raman amplification techniques are far more common.
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So why do we care about these challenges, problems, and nonlinearities Because they have a direct effect on the degree to which we can transmit signals through optical media. Without question, fiber is orders of magnitude better than copper as a transmission medium for broadband signals, but it does have limitations that cannot be ignored. In the same way that data transmitted over copper networks suffers impairments from cumulative noise and signal deterioration, so too do optical signals. As the demands for higher bandwidth and greater channel counts grow, these impairments must be carefully managed to prevent them from having an inordinately deleterious impact on the systems in which they occur. The good news is that they are well understood, and optical network engineers have developed good measurement tools to detect them and engineering guidelines to control them.
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So far, we have discussed the sources of light, including LEDs and laser diodes; we have briefly described the various flavors of optical fiber and the
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Figure 4-26 Semiconductor laser amplifier.
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Overview of Optical Technology
Overview of Optical Technology
problems they encounter as transmission media; now, we turn our attention to the devices that receive the transmitted signal. The receive devices used in optical networks have a single responsibility: to capture the transmitted optical signal and convert it into an electrical signal that can then be processed by the end equipment. Various stages of amplification may also occur to ensure that the signal is strong enough to be acted upon, and demodulation circuitry may be present, which recreates the originally transmitted electronic signal. Think for a moment about the term semiconductor. A semiconductor is a compound that, well, only semiconducts. It sits in the gray area between conductors and insulators, and must be somehow induced to conduct current. The optical receivers that are commonly used in optical networks are semiconductors themselves; let s take a moment to describe how they work. Sorry, we must descend once again into the depths of physics to do this. Photosensitive semiconductors, which are silicon-based, typically consist of three functional layers (Figure 4-27): a negative region, a positive region, and a junction region. Photodetectors are said to be reverse-biased because the negative charges (electrons) and the positive charges (holes) are not allowed to migrate into the center junction region, thus preventing the flow
Figure 4-27 Three-layer photosensitive semiconductors.
Light
Light
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Overview of Optical Technology
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of current through the semiconductor from one active layer to the other (A). This changes (B) when light of a specific wavelength strikes the photosensitive junction layer, creating electron-hole pairs in the junction layer. This results in an overall flow of current that is proportional to the intensity of the light striking the junction layer. Different substances can be used as photodetectors, including silicon (Si), germanium (Ge), gallium arsenide (GaAs), and indium-gallium arsenide (InGaAs), to name a few. They are selected based upon the operating wavelength in which they will be used because their sensitivity to light varies according to the information contained in Figure 4-28.
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