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Photodetector Types
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Although many different types of photosensitive devices are available, two types are used most commonly as photodetectors in modern networks: positiveintrinsic-negative (PIN) photodiodes and avalanche photodiodes (APDs). Positive-Intrinsic-Negative (PIN) Photodiodes PIN photodiodes are similar to the device described previously in the general discussion of photosensitive semiconductors. Reverse biasing the junction region of the device prevents current flow until light at a specific wavelength strikes the substance, creating electron-hole pairs and enabling current to flow across the three-layer interface in proportion to the intensity of the incident light. Although they are not the most sensitive devices available for the purpose of photodetection, they are perfectly adequate for the requirements of most optical systems. In cases where they are not considered sensitive enough for high-performance systems, they can be coupled with a preamplifier to increase the overall sensitivity. Figure 4-29 shows an example of a photodetector.
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Figure 4-28 Typical semiconductor operating wavelengths.
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Substance silicon germanium gallium arsenide Indium-gallium arsenide
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Operating Wavelength (nm) 400 1100 800 1600 400 1000 400 1700
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Overview of Optical Technology
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Overview of Optical Technology
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Avalanche Photodiodes (APDs) APDs work as optical signal amplifiers. They use a strong electric field to perform what is known as avalanche multiplication. In an APD, the electric field causes current accelerations such that the atoms in the semiconductor matrix get excited and create, in effect, an avalanche of current to occur. The good news is that the amplification effect can be as much as 30 to 100 times the original signal; the bad news is that the effect is not altogether linear and can create noise. APDs are sensitive to temperature and require a significant voltage to operate them 30 to 300 volts depending on the device. However, they are popular for broadband systems and work well in the gigabit range. We have now discussed transmitters, fiber media, and receivers. In the next section, we examine the fibers themselves, and how they have been carefully designed to serve as solutions for a wide variety of networking challenges and to forestall the impact of the nonlinearities described in this section.
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Optical Fiber
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As was mentioned briefly in a prior section, fiber has evolved over the years in a variety of ways to accommodate both the changing requirements of the customer community and the technological challenges that emerged as the demand for bandwidth climbed precipitously. These changes came in various forms of fiber that presented different behavior characteristics to the market.
Figure 4-29 Photodetector.
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Overview of Optical Technology
Multimode Fiber
4
The first of these was multimode fiber, which arrived in a variety of different forms. Multimode fiber bears this name because it enables more than a single mode or ray of light to be carried through the fiber simultaneously because of the relatively wide core diameter that characterizes the fiber (see Figures 4-30 and 4-31). Although the dispersion that potentially results from this phenomenon can be a problem, the use of multimode fiber has advantages. For one thing, it is far easier to couple the relatively wide and forgiving end of a multimode fiber to a light source than that of the much narrower single-mode fiber. It is also significantly less expensive to manufacture (and purchase), and relies on LEDs and inexpensive receivers rather than the more expensive laser diodes and ultrasensitive receiver devices. However, advancements in technology have caused the use of multimode fiber to fall out of favor; single mode is far more commonly used today. Multimode fiber is manufactured in two forms: step-index fiber and graded-index fiber. We will examine each in the following sections. Multimode Step-Index Fiber In step-index fiber, the index of refraction of the core is slightly higher than the index of refraction of the cladding, as
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