barcode generator in vb.net 2010 Figure 4-35 Multilayer zero dispersion-shifted fiber. in Software

Painting Code39 in Software Figure 4-35 Multilayer zero dispersion-shifted fiber.

Figure 4-35 Multilayer zero dispersion-shifted fiber.
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Overview of Optical Technology
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Overview of Optical Technology
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The first of these was to maximize the effective area of the fiber, as was discussed earlier. Lucent s TrueWave Fiber and Corning s LEAF Fiber are examples of this. Because the overall power of the optical signal(s) being carried by the fiber is distributed across a broader cross-section, the nonlinear performance problems are less pronounced. The second technique was to eliminate or at least substantially reduce the absorption peaks in the fiber performance graph so that the second and third transmission windows merge into a single larger window, thus enabling the creation of the fourth window described earlier, which operates between 1,565 and 1,625 nm the so-called L-Band. Finally, the third solution came with the development of NZDSF which shifts the minimum dispersion point so that it is close to the zero point, but not actually at it. This prevents the nonlinear problems that occur at the zero point to be avoided because it introduces a small amount of chromatic dispersion.
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It is always good to go back and review why we care about such things as dispersion-shifting and absorption issues. Remember that the key to keeping the cost of network down is to reduce maintenance and the need to add hardware or additional fiber when bandwidth gets tight. DWDM, discussed in detail later, offers an elegant and relatively simple solution to the problem of the cost of bandwidth. However, its use is not without cost. Multiwavelength systems will not operate effectively over DSF because of dramatic nonlinearities, so if DWDM is to be used, NZDSF must be deployed.
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In this section, we have examined the history of optical technology and the technology itself, focusing on the three key components within an optical network: the light emitter, the transport medium, and the receiver. We also discussed the various forms of transmission impairment that can occur in optical systems and the steps that have been taken to overcome them. The result of all this is that optical fiber, once heralded as a near-technological miracle because it only lost 99 percent of its signal strength when
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Overview of Optical Technology
4
transmitted over an entire kilometer, has become the standard medium for the transmission of high-bandwidth signals over great distances. Optical amplification now serves as an augmentation to traditional regenerated systems, enabling the elimination of the optical-to-electrical conversion that must take place in copper systems. The result of all this is an extremely efficient transmission system that has the capability to play a role in virtually any network design in existence today. We will now examine corollary technologies that add capability and richness to optical transmission including DWDM, optical switching, and routing technologies.
Dense Wavelength Division Multiplexing (DWDM)
When SONET and SDH were first introduced, the bandwidth that they made possible was unheard of. The early systems that operated at OC-3/STM-1 levels (155.52 Mbps) provided volumes of bandwidth that were almost unimaginable. As the technology advanced to higher levels, the market followed Say s Law, creating demand for the ever more available volumes of bandwidth. There were limits, however; today, OC-48/STM-16 (2.5 Gbps) is extremely popular, but OC-192/STM-64 (10 Gbps) represent the practical upper limit of SONET s and SDH s transmission capabilities given the limitations of existing time-division multiplexing technology. The alternative is to simply multiply the channel count that s where WDM comes into play. WDM is really nothing more than frequency-division multiplexing, albeit at very high frequencies. The ITU has standardized a channel separation grid that centers around 193.1 Thz, ranging from 191.1 THz to 196.5 THz. Channels on the grid are technically separated by 100 GHz, but many industry players today are using 50-GHz separation. The majority of WDM systems operate in the C-Band (third window, 1,550 nm), which allows for close placement of channels and the reliance on EDFAs to improve signal strength. Older systems, which spaced the channels 200 GHz (1.6 nm) apart, were referred to as WDM systems; the newer systems are referred to as Dense WDM systems because of their tighter channel spacing. Modern systems routinely pack 40 10-Gbps channels across a single fiber, for an aggregate bit rate of 400 Gbps.
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