barcode generator in vb.net codeproject Figure 5-10 ATM cell header when used in NNI configuration. in Software

Creator Code 3/9 in Software Figure 5-10 ATM cell header when used in NNI configuration.

Figure 5-10 ATM cell header when used in NNI configuration.
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other functions. Figure 5-11 illustrates these bits. The first bit indicates whether the cell was generated by the user or by the network, whereas the second indicates the presence or absence of congestion in usergenerated cells or flow-related operations, administration, and maintenance (OA&M) information in cells generated by the network. The third bit is used for service-specific, higher-layer functions in the user-to-network direction, such as to indicate that a cell is the last in a series of cells. From the network to the user, the third bit is used with the second bit to indicate whether the OA&M information refers to segment or end-to-end-related information flow.
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Cell Loss Priority (CLP): The single-bit cell loss priority field is a relatively primitive flow control mechanism by which the user can indicate to the network which cells to discard in the event of a condition that demands that some cells be eliminated, and is similar to the Discard Eligibility (DE) bit in frame relay. It can also be set by the network to indicate to downstream switches that certain cells in the stream are eligible for discard should that become necessary. Header Error Control (HEC): The eight-bit HEC field can be used for two purposes. First, it provides for the calculation of an eight-bit Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) that checks the integrity of the entire header. Second, it can be used for cell delineation.
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
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Value 000 001 010 011 100 101 110 111 Function User data cell; no congestion; SDU=0 User data cell; no congestion; SDU=1 User data cell; congestion; SDU=0 User data cell; congestion; SDU=1 OAM F5 segment associated cell OAM F5 end-to-end associated cell Resource management cell Reserved
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Figure 5-11 Payload Type Identifier (PTI) field.
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ATM Services
The basic services that ATM provides are based on three general characteristics: the nature of the connection between the communicating stations (connection-oriented vs. connectionless); the timing relationship between the sender and the receiver; and the bit rate required to ensure proper levels of service quality. Based on those generic requirements, both the ITU-T and the ATM Forum have created service classes that address the varying requirements of the most common forms of transmitted data.
ITU-T Service Classes
The ITU-T assigns service classes based on three characteristics: connection mode, bit rate, and the end-to-end timing relationship between the end stations. They have created four distinct service classes based on the model shown in Figure 5-12. Class A service, for example, defines a connectionoriented, constant bit rate, timing-based service that is ideal for the stringent requirements of voice service. Class B, on the other hand, is ideal for such services as variable bit rate video, in that it defines a connectionoriented, variable bit rate, timing-based service. Class C service was defined for such things as frame relay, in that it provides a connection-oriented, variable bit rate, timing-independent service. Finally, Class D delivers a connectionless, variable bit rate, timing-independent service that is ideal for IP traffic as well as Switched Multimegabit Data Service (SMDS).
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Figure 5-12 AAL classes of service.
Class A AAL Type Connection Mode Bit Rate Timing relationship Service Types 1 Connectionoriented Constant Required Voice, video Class B 2 Connectionoriented Variable Required VBR voice, video Class C 5, 3/4 Connectionoriented Variable Not Required Frame relay
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Class D 5, 3/4 Connectionless Variable Not Required IP
In addition to service classes, the ITU-T has defined ATM Adaptation Layer (AAL) service types, which align closely with the A, B, C, and D service types described previously. Whereas the service classes (A, B, C, and D) describe the capabilities of the underlying network, the AAL types describe the cell format. They are AAL1, AAL2, AAL3/4, and AAL 5. However, only two of them have really survived in a big way. AAL1 is defined for Class A service, which is a constant bit rate environment ideally suited for voice and voice-like applications. In AAL1 cells, the first octet of the payload serves as a payload header that contains cell sequence and synchronization information that is required to provision constant bit rate, fully-sequenced service. AAL1 provides circuit emulation service without dedicating a physical circuit, which explains the need for an end-to-end timing relationship between the transmitter and the receiver. AAL5, on the other hand, is designed to provide both Class C and D services, and although it was originally proposed as a transport scheme for connection-oriented data services, it turns out to be more efficient than AAL3/4 and accommodates connectionless services quite well. To guard against the possibility of errors, AAL5 has an eight-octet trailer appended to the user data which includes a variable size pad field used to align the payload on 48-octet boundaries, a two-octet control field that is currently unused, a two-octet length field that indicates the number of octets in the user data, and finally, a four-octet CRC that can check the integrity of the entire payload. AAL5 is often referred to as the Simple and Easy Adaptation Layer (SEAL), and it may find an ideal application for itself in the burgeoning Internet arena. Recent studies indicate that TCP/IP transmissions produce comparatively large numbers of small packets that tend to be around 48 octets long. That being the case, AAL5 could well
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
transport the bulk of them in its user-data field. Furthermore, the maximum size of the user data field is 65,536 octets, which is coincidentally the same size as an IP packet.
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