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as viable revenue components in the emerging optical network. SONET and SDH were designed to address the relatively predictable 64-Kbps transport needs of voice networks that dominated the attention of service providers in the pre-Internet world. However, with the arrival of the World Wide Web in the early 1990s, transported traffic became a mix of predictable voice and unpredictable, chaotic, latency-friendly packet data. As a result, SONET and SDH were no longer capable of meeting the demands of all service types as adequately as customers required, particularly given the nascent interest in quality of service (QoS) as the principal differentiator among access and transport providers. Qualities such as security, latency, granular bandwidth provisioning, dynamic time-of-day provisioning, multiple levels of service protection, and a host of others have garnered the attention of service providers in general, particularly as they have begun to managerially segment their networks into local, metro, regional, and long-haul quadrants. It is this differentiable quality of service capability that not only provides differentiation among the players in a rapidly commoditizing (if that s a word) market, but it also offers new approaches to revenue generation always a happy topic. Because of the original services that they were designed to transport, SONET and SDH networks for the most part comprise large, multinode rings that interconnect to other rings as well as point-to-point facilities. These architectures are well understood, fully functional, and widely deployed, thus the cost of maintaining them on an ongoing basis is comparatively low. They provide ideal carriage for the limited requirements of circuit-switched voice, offering not only low-latency transport, but survivability as well. If a failure occurs due to a fiber disruption, service can usually be restored in less than 50 ms, which means that voice traffic is not affected. As the traffic mix has evolved, however, the limitations of SONET and SDH have become rather more evident. Each ring in a SONET or SDH network is limited to a certain number of nodes, and each ring cannot exceed a certain maximum circumference if transport QoS is to be assured. Thus, if added capacity is needed in the network, the solution is to add rings, clearly an expensive and time-consuming process. This stacked ring model also has the disadvantage of being disparately managed, meaning that each ring must be provisioned and managed on an individual basis, making the job of the network manager rather more difficult. Furthermore, SONET and SDH do not offer particularly flexible bandwidth allocation capabilities. Originally created to transport 64-Kbps voice, neither of the two adapts well to the transport of data traffic that has wildly variable bandwidth requirements, in terms of both bandwidth assignment
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and predictability. Think about it: in a SONET network, bandwidth jumps from 51.84 Mbps (OC-1) directly to 155.52 Mbps (OC-3) with no intermediate level. A customer wishing to make a minor upgrade must increase his or her actual purchased bandwidth threefold, much of which he or she will probably not use. And because SONET and SDH rings typically reserve as much as half of their total available bandwidth for redundancy functions, they are terribly inefficient. The mesh model introduced earlier represents the solution to this set of problems. In the last 3 years, optical networking has evolved in three significant areas: the development of true all-optical switching and intelligent routing, the extensive proliferation of fiber throughout most carriers operating areas, and the return of the mesh network. In a ring network, nodes are connected to one another in such a way that they do not have direct interconnection to one another all node-to-node traffic (other than between adjacent nodes) must flow along a rigidly deterministic path from a source node to a destination. In a mesh network, every node in the network is connected to every other node in the network, thus enabling shortest-hop routing throughout the network between any two end points. The advantages of this design are rather strong. First of all, distance limitations in mesh networks are largely eliminated because paths are created on a shortest-path basis between nodes rather than all the way around a ring. As a result, nodes represent the bottleneck in mesh networks rather than the fiber spans themselves, which means that network operators can increase capacity simply by adding nodes on a demand basis and increasing transported bandwidth across the installed fiber infrastructure. This eliminates the stacked ring problem and dramatically improves upgrade intervals, an area of some concern for most service providers. Perhaps the greatest advantage of the mesh deployment is management: unlike SONET and SDH, where rings must be managed largely on a ringby-ring basis, mesh networks are designed to accommodate point-and-click provisioning, which shortens installation intervals from months in many cases to hours. A number of vendors, including Astral Point, have put themselves on the map with this capability. Their focus is primarily on the metropolitan marketplace, whereas players such as Sycamore have focused their attention more on the wide area transport environment. The mesh network also enables carriers to design distributed protection schemes, which in turn enable them to use their available bandwidth much more efficiently. SONET and SDH rely on redundant rings to provide 100 percent survivability, which on the one hand is great because it provides 100 percent redundancy, but on the other hand wastes 50 percent of the
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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