vb.net qr code Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game in Software

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Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game
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is passed through a digital cross-connect system of one kind or another that grooms the traffic before passing it along to higher-speed aggregation rings. These aggregation rings interconnect to carrier points-of-presence (POPs), often in a metropolitan area, which in turn allow for hand off to wide area network connections. This is illustrated in Figure 6-17.
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The type of traffic being transported across a network can be a deterministic factor where network designers are considering deployment of ring vs. mesh architectures. In small geographic areas, rings are well suited to the transport of delay-sensitive traffic. Metro areas do not typically enjoy mesh penetration, and because most customers are connected to nodes on access rings rather than to nodes on a mesh, the model holds. In access applications, SONET and SDH rings rise to the top of the capability mountain; mesh, shown in Figure 6-18, shines when used in interoffice implementations.
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Figure 6-17 Tributary ring support.
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Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game
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Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game
For wide area transport, mesh networks provide ideal service characteristics, particularly for the requirements of latency/delay-friendly data traffic where volume may be very high, but potentially bursty as well.
Defining the Network Edge
The edge of the optical network has multiple definitions, but it can be somewhat defined as the interface between the core and the customer. The type
Figure 6-18 A mesh network.
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Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game
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of service provider also has some bearing on the definition of this particular network region because their responsibilities vary depending where they sit in the pantheon of network operators. In the following section, we will examine the major operators and their views of the network. First, however, we should describe the nature of the device that performs the optical edge function. It is typically a device that performs add-drop multiplexing (ADM) capability, multichannel transport through the use of DWDM, and some form of switching and/or routing. It must offer capacity that is at least equivalent to the bandwidth in a single DWDM lambda, typically 2.488 Gbps. This may provide a sticking point for some customers: ATM is one of the most widely transported protocols over SONET and SDH networks. ATM chipset manufacturers, however, typically build their devices to operate no faster than 622.08 Mbps. This clear disconnect could pose serious problems for operators looking to interface the two efficiently. It is, however, being addressed as awareness is very high. Let s consider now the companies in the telecommunications industry that are most affected by this evolving technology model. They include the Incumbent Local Exchange Carriers (ILECs), the Competitive Local Exchange Carriers (CLECs), the Interexchange Carriers (IXCs), the Bandwidth Barons, the Internet Service Providers (ISPs), and a few others. All stand to benefit from the ongoing optical evolution; however, because they play in wildly differing markets, their issues are also different.
The Incumbent Local Exchange Carrier (ILEC)
The typical ILEC (formerly RBOC) operates a network that is hierarchical, comprising multiple levels of central offices that are interconnected by optical facilities that in turn feed bandwidth to multitenant units (MTUs) or individual customers over fiber or copper distribution facilities. In their minds, the edge of the network is either the central office or the end terminal located at the customer premises. ILECs tend to be relatively homogeneous in terms of the products and services they provide. Their strengths lie in the access and transport business, at which they excel; however, because of the commoditization of this business, their ability to maintain marketshare is diminishing. For the most part, they have grown by acquiring more of the same: Witness Bell Atlantic s acquisitions of NYNEX and GTE, or SBC s acquisitions of Pacific Bell, Nevada Bell, Ameritech, and SNET. They have expanded their footprint, but have not done much to diversify their product and service offerDownloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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