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The actual graph scale is divided into 255 distinct values above and below the zero line. In North America and Japan, the encoding scheme is known as -Law (Mu-Law); the rest of the world relies on a slightly different standard known as A-Law. Eight segments are above the line and eight are below (one of which is the shared zero point); each segment, in turn, is subdivided into 16 steps. A bit of binary mathematics now enables us to convert the quantized amplitude samples into an eight-bit value for transmission. For the sake of demonstration, let s consider a negative sample that falls into the thirteenth step in segment five. The conversion would take on the following representation 1 101 1101 where the initial 0 indicates a negative sample, 101 indicates the fifth segment, and 1101 indicates the thirteenth step in the segment. We now have an eight-bit representation of an analog amplitude sample that can be transmitted across a digital network, then reconstructed with its many counterparts as an accurate representation of the original analog waveform at the receiving end. This entire process is known as Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) and the result of its efforts is often referred to as toll-quality voice.
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Although PCM is perhaps the best-known, high-quality voice digitization process, it is by no means the only one. Advances in coding schemes and improvements in the overall quality of the telephone network have made it possible to develop encoding schemes that use far less bandwidth than traditional PCM. In this next section, we will consider some of these techniques. Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) Adaptive Differential Pulse Code Modulation (ADPCM) is a technique that enables toll-quality voice signals to be encoded at half-rate (32 Kbps) for transmission. ADPCM relies on the predictability that is inherent in human speech to reduce the amount of information required. The technique still relies on PCM encoding, but adds an additional step to carry out its task. The 64 Kbps PCM-encoded signal is fed into an ADPCM transcoder, which considers the previous behavior of the incoming stream to create a prediction of the behavior of the next sample. This is where the magic happens: instead of transmitting the actual value of the predicted sample, it encodes in four
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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bits and transmits the difference between the actual and predicted samples. Because the difference from sample to sample is typically quite small, the results are generally considered to be very close to toll-quality. This fourbit transcoding process, which is based on the known behavior characteristics of human voice, enables the system to transmit 8,000 four-bit samples per second, thus reducing the overall bandwidth requirement from 64 Kbps to 32 Kbps. It should be noted that ADPCM works well for voice because the encoding and predictive algorithms are based upon its behavior characteristics. It does not, however, work as well for higher bit rate data (above 4,800 bps), which has an entirely different set of behavior characteristics. Continuously Variable Slope Delta (CVSD) Continuously Variable Slope Delta (CVSD) is a unique form of voice encoding that relies on the values of individual bits to predict the behavior of the incoming signal. Instead of transmitting the volume (height or y-value) of PAM samples, CVSD transmits information that it measures the changing slope of the waveform. Rather than transmitting the actual change itself, it transmits the rate of change, as shown in Figure 1-21. To perform its task, CVSD uses a reference voltage to which it compares all incoming values. If the incoming signal value is less than the reference voltage, then the CVSD encoder reduces the slope of the curve to make its approximation better mirror the slope of the actual signal. If the incoming
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