vb.net qr code Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game in Software

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Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game
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Figure 6-20 The new network model.
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desirable. Prior to the introduction of IP and unified messaging, the ability to do that was complex, costly, and people intensive. Each operator required multiple phone lines, and the call center required call routing software that was complex and costly in its own right. IP, in concert with other Internetderived protocols such as HTTP, allows for tremendous simplification of the call routing algorithm. Consider the following example. To contact the author of this book using every possible business contact technique, you would need an office telephone number, a fax number, a home telephone number, an e-mail address, a cell phone number, a pager number, and so on. Chances are very good that the numbers would not be sequential and would therefore be difficult to remember.
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IP s Promise
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Now, consider the promise of IP s unified messaging concept. Instead of multiple unrelated numbers, the author could be contacted over an IP network in every possible way by typing
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Steve@office.ShepardComm.com Steve@fax.ShepardComm.com Steve@home.ShepardComm.com
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Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game
Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game
Steve@mail.ShepardComm.com Steve@cell.ShepardComm.com Steve@pager.ShepardComm.com
Clearly, this is a far simpler way to operate a business or call center, and dramatically simplifies the contact process for the customer. IP, then, provides the global addressing and universality required to make this possible. Today, IP has a single drawback that is something of a showstopper. Because it was originally designed for the routing of connectionless, delay-insensitive data traffic across a packet network, it does not provide adequate QoS granularity to the broad range of services that it is now being asked to deliver. IP is something of a proletarian protocol in that it treats all traffic equally. By and large, in its native mode, it is incapable of discriminating between high- and low-priority packets. This, of course, is a problem because the diverse nature of traffic today requires a variety of QoS levels if the service provided by this single network fabric is to sell. Several options are either available or under development to accomplish this.
IP Version 6 (Ipv6)
The first of these is the next generation of IP, known as IP Version 6 (Ipv6). In Ipv6, the protocol header has been redesigned to provide space for specific bytes that can be used to indicate the QoS parameters required for each packet so that network routers can handle them accordingly. However, IPv6 is far from ready to be commercially deployed, and although it has been tested and is being trailed today, its widespread deployment is still a bit over the horizon.
Tag Switching
A second method is to use a technique called tag switching. Originally developed by Cisco for quality control in large router networks, tag switching precedes each packet with an additional field, called a tag, which contains QoS requirements that network routers can take into account as they make routing decisions. Tag switching is a very capable technique, but has the drawback of being proprietary it only works on Cisco routers. In response, an open, vendor-independent form of tag switching was developed called Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS).
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Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game
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Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) When establishing connections over an IP network, it is critical to manage traffic queues to ensure the proper treatment of packets that come from delay-sensitive services such as voice and video. In order to do this, packets must be differentiable, that is, identifiable so that they can be classified properly. Routers, in turn, must be able to respond properly to delay-sensitive traffic by implementing queue management processes. This requires that routers establish both normal and high-priority queues, and handle the traffic found in highpriority routing queues faster than the arrival rate of the traffic. MPLS delivers QoS by establishing virtual circuits known as Label Switched Paths (LSPs), which are built around traffic-specific QoS requirements. Thus, a router can establish LSPs with explicit QoS capabilities and route packets to those LSPs as required, guaranteeing the delay that a particular flow encounters on an end-to-end basis. It s interesting to note that some industry analysts have compared MPLS LSPs to the trunks established in the voice environment. MPLS uses a two-part process for traffic differentiation and routing. First, it divides the packets into Forwarding Equivalence Classes (FECs) based on their QoS requirements, and then maps the FECs to their next hop point. This process is performed at the point of ingress at the edge of the network. Each FEC is given a fixed-length label that accompanies each packet from hop to hop; at each router, the FEC label is examined and used to route the packet to the next hop point, where it is assigned a new label. MPLS is a shim protocol that works closely with IP to help it deliver on QoS guarantees. Its implementation will enable the eventual dismissal of ATM as a required layer in the multimedia network protocol stack. Although it offers a promising solution, its widespread deployment is still a ways in the future because of the logistics of deployment. Multiprotocol Lambda Switching (MP S) Multiprotocol Lambda Switching (MP S) is the latest innovation to come along in some time. Lambda switching (sometimes called photonic or wavelength switching) is used in optical networking to switch individual wavelengths onto separate paths for specific routing. In conjunction with technologies such as DWDM, which enables 80 or more separate wavelengths to be transmitted on a single optical fiber, lambda switching enables a light path to behave like a traditional virtual circuit. Lambda switching works in much the same way as traditional routing and switching. Lambda routers, which are also called wavelength routers or optical cross-connects, are positioned at network junction points. The
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