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lambda router takes in a single wavelength of light from a fiber and recombines it into another fiber. Lambda routers are being manufactured by a number of companies, including Ciena, Lucent, and Nortel. Multiprotocol Lambda Switching is a variation on the MPLS theme, where specific wavelengths are used instead of labels as circuit identifiers. The specified wavelengths, like the labels, make it possible for routers and switches to perform routing functions without having to open the packet for addressing information.
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Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM)
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The third technique, and the one that holds the greatest promise today, is found one layer down the protocol stack. ATM provides granular QoS control through the capabilities of its Adaptation Layer (AAL). The ATM Adaptation Layer at the ingress switch examines customer traffic as it arrives at the switch and then, based on the nature of the traffic, classifies it according to its QoS requirements based on three parameters: whether the traffic is connectionless or connection-oriented, whether it requires a fixed or variable bit rate, and whether or not an explicit timing relationship exists between the sending and receiving devices. Once these have been determined, the ATM ingress switch assigns a service class to the cells that make up the traffic stream and transmits them into the network, knowing that ATM s highly-reliable connection-oriented transport architecture and each switch s capability to interpret and respond to the assigned service class will ensure that the QoS mandate of the sending device will be accommodated on a network-wide basis. Thus, ATM provides QoS today.
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Finally, we arrive at the lowest level of the protocol stack where we encounter DWDM. DWDM offers massive bandwidth multiplication capability and is in widespread use today. DWDM is discussed in more detail elsewhere in the book, but suffice it to say that it is a form of frequency-division multiplexing, operating in the infrared domain, that enables multiple wavelengths of light to be simultaneously transmitted down the same fiber, significantly increasing the available bandwidth of the fiber and providing a cost-effective bandwidth multiplication solution to the provider. In fact, industry estimates show that the per-mile cost to trench in new fiber as a
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bandwidth relief effort is approximately $70K per mile; adding the same bandwidth by changing the end points to include DWDM costs a muchreduced $12 20K per mile. There is nothing new about DWDM. In fact, it relies on technology that has been in widespread use throughout the network since the 1960s in the form of frequency-division multiplexing, the technique of dividing a broad swath of spectrum into chunks and assigning each chunk to a different customer. As a technique for the facile multiplication of bandwidth, DWDM is a technological hero. Of course, the success of WDM is more involved than simple multiplexing. Fundamental to its success was the capability to eliminate the opticalto-electrical-to-optical (O-E-O) conversion that was necessary for switching, multiplexing, and signal regeneration a process analogous to amplification in the analog transmission world. The first important accomplishment that led to this simplification was the development and widespread deployment of the all-optical amplifier. Optical amplification, explained earlier, is the direct result of a sublime understanding of quantum physics. Erbium-Doped Fiber Amplifiers (EDFA) amplify signals in the optical domain, completely eliminating the O-E-O conversion that must normally take place. EDFA is the technology that makes Wavelength Division Multiplexing commercially possible. By eliminating the need for electrical to optical conversion, the promise of the all-optical network can begin to be realized. Before WDM became commercially available, optical transmission systems were for the most part limited to the transmission of a single wavelength per fiber, thus limiting the bandwidth of that fiber rather substantially by today s measure. As optical networking techniques continued to advance, however, this limitation became a non-issue. The original WDM systems developed by Lucent Technologies Bell Laboratories had the capability to transmit as many as four wavelengths of light down a single fiber. Today, DWDM systems routinely carry as many as 160 different wavelengths per fiber by assigning a different frequency, or color, to each stream of information. Individual lasers operating at different wavelengths, or single lasers operating at multiple wavelengths, transmit the information into the fiber, thus enabling enormous bandwidth to be offered from a single fiber. At the time of transmission, the optical signal is amplified at the ingress point, after which it enters the fiber. Depending upon the nature of the fiber itself, the signal is then amplified every 40 to 60 miles to overcome the inevitable weakening of the signal that occurs over distance.
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