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Players and Futures in the SONET/SDH Game
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Using DWDM, service providers have the ability to add bandwidth to an existing fiber-optic network without having to engage the services of a backhoe. This becomes important when the costs involved are examined. As mentioned earlier, when adding fiber to an existing network as a way to increase available bandwidth, the cost can be as much as $70K per mile. On the other hand, the addition of DWDM electronics at the end points to accomplish the same thing can cost as little as $12 20K a significant difference. Much of the cost, of course, is labor, the requirement for which is dramatically reduced when the need for outside plant work is eliminated. This technique is often referred to in the industry as the deployment of virtual bandwidth because physical resources have not been added to bring about the improvement in the network that has taken place. In the same way that EDFA provided low-cost and highly effective amplification to optical spans, other innovations have helped to reduce the complexity and expense of the migration from electrical to hybrid to all-optical networks. For example, optical switches, which use arrays of micro-mirrors, refractive bubbles in fluid-filled chambers, and the natural resonant frequency of certain types of crystals, make it possible to eliminate electrical switching elements. Tunable lasers eliminate the need for multiple lasers operating at specific frequencies and reduce sparing requirements for service providers. Advanced and highly accurate optical filters provide channel separation in densely packed wavelength division systems, making it possible to dramatically expand the total bandwidth of an optical span. Management and monitoring systems, specifically designed for optical networks, make it possible to discretely manage these networks at highly granular levels, thus ensuring the ability to meet the requirements of customer service level agreements.
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Protocol Assemblies: Putting it Together
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IP, ATM, SONET/SDH, and DWDM represent a powerful and robust protocol stack, but in the minds of many industry pundits, they are far from being the ultimate network design for the full-service transport fabric. One significant complaint that is often voiced about this four-tier stack is that it is highly overhead intensive. True enough: IP, ATM, and SONET/SDH all add considerable overhead in the process of doing what they do. However, remember the adage: if it ain t broke, don t fix it. Although this phrase has
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some truth, many argue that the model is broken and can be significantly improved. Consider what happens to customer traffic as it enters the following IPbased network. The stream of data enters the ingress router where it is chopped into pieces. A header is attached to each piece, which contains information used to route the packets from the source to the destination. This header, although substantial, is usually inconsequential because IP packets tend to contain thousands of bytes of payload (user data). The IP packets are then handed down to the ATM layer, where they are further segmented into 48-octet pieces. Each is given a five-byte header to form ATM cells. Now, the overhead in the header becomes significant: approximately 10 percent of the cell is overhead. The cells are then handed down to the SONET/SDH layer, where they are packaged in frames for transport across the optical network. Each frame has embedded within it additional overhead, to the tune of about 5 percent of the frame. It should be clear to the reader that this four-layer stack has some rather serious downsides. First of all, IP, as it exists today, although a good protocol for universal networking, does precious little to guarantee the integrity of the user s data. ATM, for all its capabilities, is not really ideal for anything. It is not the best scheme for the transport of voice; the PSTN has it beat hands-down. It s also not the best for video; a dedicated high-speed circuit is far better. It certainly isn t the best solution for data transport; it s far too expensive, and other solutions are equally capable. Furthermore, the overhead tax that IP, ATM, and SONET/SDH exact is significant. Many argue that it doesn t matter because of the belief that we are entering a time when bandwidth will be so abundant that we can afford to waste it. However, building networks based on that belief is irresponsible and dangerous. The communications corollary to Parkinson s Law promises that we will find a reason to need that bandwidth, so exercising caution to be efficient is advice worth listening to. Service providers are already burdened with the legacy of SONET and SDH, which were designed in a time when those deploying them were monopolies and not terribly concerned with protocol efficiencies. Many find the two to be monolithic, overheadintensive, and inefficient a stand that is hard to argue with. One effort that is afoot (and that will undoubtedly be successful) intends to collapse the four-layer stack to two, shown in Figure 6-21, eliminating the ATM and SONET/SDH layers entirely by moving their responsibilities into the IP and DWDM layers, respectively. In other words, the responsibility for QoS control would be moved upward to IP, whereas survivability and robustness would become the responsibility of DWDM. To accomplish this,
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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