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Equally problematic is the inherently data-hostile nature of the legacy transport schemes around which SONET and SDH are built. Because the framing structures are highly regimented and inflexible, bandwidth upgrades tend to occur in large, inefficient blocks. This leads to cost concerns and wasted bandwidth.
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These issues, all of which are valid, have led to talk about the so-called nextgeneration SONET or SDH network. This model, based on work performed by a variety of vendors, including Astral Point, Mayan, Cisco, Lucent, Nortel, Redback, Sycamore, Fujitsu, Corvis, Ciena, and a host of others, is based on a structure in which data is mapped efficiently into SONET or SDH transmission streams such as virtual tributaries or channelized and unchannelized optical streams based on either existing standards or proprietary, but widely accepted mapping schemes that guarantee interoperability. Cisco has been particularly active in this area and others. Their 15454 system, for example, delivers wideband packet services over SONET, using multiple bonded virtual tributaries (VT1.5s, specifically) to create point-to-point circuits that satisfy the specific bandwidth demands of various data types. For the bitheads in the audience, their work is based on two principal standards: RFC 1619, which addresses the use of point-to-point protocol (PPP), and RFC 1990, which concerns itself with multilink PPP (MLPPP) for encapsulation of data traffic into DS-1 payloads. Given the direction that the overall industry (including user communities) is going, the following model seems likely for the overall design of nextgeneration SONET and SDH networks. Data, probably IP that originates in a corporate environment and is most likely framed as some form of Ethernet, passes from an Ethernet port across one of the previously mentioned PPP interfaces into the SONET or SDH network. There, the data is mapped into framed DS-1 or E-1 channels, which in turn are prepared for transmission over a ring. As was previously mentioned, a number of vendors have devoted considerable resources to the development of next-generation SONET and SDH products. They will be described in detail later in this section. So what is the addressable market for the next generation of these technologies They are largely the segments that we described earlier. These include the central offices owned and operated by both incumbent and competitive carriers in metropolitan areas, particularly those that serve customer bases that will use high-bandwidth access technologies such as DSL,
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Downloaded from Digital Engineering Library @ McGraw-Hill (www.digitalengineeringlibrary.com) Copyright 2004 The McGraw-Hill Companies. All rights reserved. Any use is subject to the Terms of Use as given at the website.
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IP, ATM, broadband wireless, and a variety of others; the ISP points-ofpresence where traffic aggregation is the rule and multiple network operators congregate for access; interexchange carrier offices, where the variety of service types are best served at the network edge; and Internet data centers, where the rule of the road is massive, highly flexible bandwidth. All of these are factors that strongly affect the viability of SONET and SDH in the general marketplace, particularly at the network edge for data applications. So, where are SONET and SDH going The correct answer is nowhere fast and that s a good thing. A variety of factors ensure their survival for the foreseeable future. These include the tangible growth of next-generation SONET and SDH hardware systems from capable, devoted-to-the-market vendors, an enormous installed base of legacy networks, and a significant level of comfort on the part of the carriers with traditional SONET and SDH technologies. Add to these the growing demand for high-speed interfaces, the seemingly unstoppable demand for bandwidth, and the almost hysterical frenzy that characterizes the carriers attempts to expand their service offerings as they battle for market position. In North America alone, the growth of new entrants (CLECs, bandwidth barons, ISPs, and others) threatens to push the SONET market from a respectable $930 million in 2000 to an almost unbelievable $6.3 billion by 2004. This does not sound like the behavior of a dying legacy technology, does it
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