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sations on a single channel a process called multiplexing. In digital carrier environments, a variety of incoming signals are combined by a multiplexer into a composite signal that is transmitted over a T1 or E1 facility. This enables multiple voice and data conversations to be carried simultaneously by a carrier, reducing the cost to the service provider, and of course, to the customer. This composite signal consists of multiple 8-bit samples from each of the channels of the multiplexer, plus framing information that marks the beginning of the frame of data. At the central office, these multiplexed signals are further combined to create higher bit rate transmissions. In countries that rely on the T-Carrier hierarchy, the devices that perform this cascaded multiplexing function are called M13 multiplexers because they combine four DS1 signals to create a DS-2, then seven DS-2s to create the aggregate DS-3. The resulting 44.736-Mbps signal is transported to its destination, where the receiving central office equipment, typically another M13 mux, disassembles the signal and routes the various subcomponents onto their final destinations. Needless to say, telecommunications networks are complex and highly interwoven creatures. The components of a multiplexed bitstream can originate from a variety of networks, and as a result, may have slight timing differences among the signal components. To ensure the timing integrity of the network, incoming bit streams have to be rate-aligned through a process called bit stuffing. As the name implies, bit stuffing procedures actually stuff bits into the real data stream to ensure that the different components are properly aligned and dancing to the same network tune. The resulting alphabet soup of data bits and stuff bits is then transmitted over the network. The genesis of a high-speed DS-3 frame from intermediate DS2s, which in turn, originated from individual DS1s, is quite complex. By the time the carrier system has created the final DS3 signal, the location of each composite source is buried under three separate layers of overhead and three independent framing systems. In order for a customer to access their information in this technological alphabet soup, the entire three-stage process must be reversed. This requires equipment dedicated solely to the task of demultiplexing and remultiplexing the stream a pair of back-to-back M13 multiplexers. The difficulty caused by this multilayered signal building process becomes obvious every time components of a signal need to be dropped out. At these add-drop points, the entire complex signal must be decomposed, the various control and stuff bits identified and backed out, the component
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in question identified, selected, and dropped out, and the remaining pieces reassembled and sent on their way. This process, called back-to-back multiplexing, is unwieldy, hardware intensive, time consuming, and expensive. SONET and SDH eliminate the need for this process. They represent a move forward along the evolutionary path, and are designed to accommodate all network standards, easily and transparently. Other factors have driven the remarkably rapid development of the SONET and SDH standards as well. Advancements in transmission technologies and the development of broadband services have increased customer demand for bandwidth, and optical transmission is clearly a cost-effective way to provide it. Both fiber and the terminating electronics for optical networking have experienced remarkable advances, feeding the evolution toward fiber-based systems and all-optical networking. Another factor that has positively affected the successful deployment of SONET and SDH is the proliferation of highly capable, low-cost chipsets for high-speed networking applications. Like any new technology, the creation of mass-produced very large-scale integration (VLSI) technology has caused the price of electronics to fall precipitously. Advances in the technologies associated with producing the fiber itself have seen its cost fall from a level that was once prohibitive to the point that the cost of a deployed fiber mile is comparable to copper, perhaps cheaper in some cases. On a bandwidthdelivered basis, fiber is obviously far less expensive than copper. Another driver is the evolving role of fiber itself. In keeping with current and planned advancements in optical technology, it is a firmly held belief that optical fiber will be the medium of choice for interconnecting high-speed, high-volume central office switches, corporate facilities, perhaps even customer access devices. True photonic switches that switch light pulses without first converting them to electrical signals are commonplace today, and optical routers are not far behind; a fiber backbone arrangement to interconnect them is clearly necessary if their full potential is to be realized. Finally, as networks become faster, more diverse, and more interconnected, some form of centralized and universal network management system begins to look rather attractive, particularly given the overwhelming focus on QoS as the principal deliverable. In fact, SONET and SDH provide the underpinnings for a network architecture that satisfies all of these requirements. Two key factors continue to play leading roles in the accelerated rollout of fiber systems and the demand for SONET and SDH.
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