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mid-span meet was only one of the challenges that SONET was designed to overcome. The many components and sub-networks of today s transmission systems have sophisticated network management systems, which, on the one hand, is a good thing. On the other hand, the number of management systems tends to grow in proportion to the complexity of the network, making the network manager s job something of a nightmare. The typical Network Control Center looks like a television display in a department store, with messages and information displayed in every possible format imaginable. It s up to the network manager to assemble and collate all the incoming messages, then make decisions based on their content. There has to be a better way. We ve already discussed back-to-back multiplexing, the cumbersome technique used in today s networks to add or drop signal components. In many cases, as applications emerge, customers become bandwidth limited. Major network retrofits and workarounds are often needed to comply with customer demand as bandwidth-hungry applications become more and more common. In the post-SONET and SDH world, true vendor independence is finally a reality. Additionally, SONET provides a standard suite of maintenance and management messages. This means that network management and provisioning can be done from a single system on a network-wide basis. Incoming status messages from cross-connect systems, fiber systems, multiplexers, and miscellaneous information from far-flung central offices can now be displayed on a single monitoring device in a standard format, thus consolidating the information into a usable structure. This enables network management personnel to react to network difficulties on a global basis, instead of on a component-by-component basis sort of a Zen and the Art of Network Management concept. SONET and SDH s sophisticated multiplexing techniques enable signal components to be added and dropped from the bitstream, but it does so without back-to-back multiplexers. The fiber-based transmission hierarchy described in the SONET and SDH standards provides customers with virtually unlimited bandwidth and more can be added routinely. The key to SONET s and SDH s acceptance as international standards lies with its logically structured hierarchy of transmission rates. Standards designers knew that the system they created had to accommodate both North American and European transmission schemes, with rates ranging from DS1, to DS3, to Europe s 139.284 Mbps CEPT-3 signal and beyond.
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To transport these disparate signals, SONET relies on a 51.84-Mbps basic building block, called Optical Carrier Level One (OC-1). Multiple OC-1s can be combined to create higher rate signals. OC-3, for example, is exactly three OC-1s. An OC-3 signal easily accommodates a CEPT payload as easily as an OC-1 transports a DS3 signal. Something of a disparity appears between the OC rate and the signal that it transports. OC-1 is 51.84 Mbps, whereas DS3 is only 44.736 Mbps. A similar difference exists between OC-3 and the CEPT-3 signal. SONET has a quite sophisticated yet simple way of placing payload into a frame structure that doesn t actually care where the data starts. In fact, the payload can move around within the frame, and SONET will keep track of it, thanks to the payload pointer. In SONET and SDH, some of the bandwidth is overhead a lot of it, in fact. In a 51.84-Mbps OC-1 signal, for example, over 2 Mbps is overhead. This stems from the fact that SONET and SDH are based on a philosophy that bandwidth is cheap and it s a good thing because they use a lot of it for overhead. Among other things, this overhead is what SONET and SDH use to keep track of the payload. In traditional networks, systems rely on the hardware s capability to discern certain patterns in the data that denote beginnings and ends of data components. T1 systems, for example, and others like them, rely on a repeating pattern of framing bits to ensure frame integrity. By counting data bits between framing bits, the network knows where the data begins and ends. SONET and SDH, on the other hand, steal an idea from the world of software: the pointer. The upshot of this is that the data can effectively start anywhere within the frame, and the pointer will always indicate the first byte of the payload. If the data shifts slightly, due to a shift in phase, no problem the pointer adjusts as well. In this way, SONET and SDH deal effectively with minor phase discrepancies. If a disparity is detected, the pointer moves forward or backward, thus speeding up or slowing down the payload. Today s network components are extremely stable and rely on accurate internal clocks for timing consistency. As signals pass from device to network device, they are often incrementally affected by minute variations in the power supplies within each device. This causes the signals to shift slightly in phase, a condition that in traditional networks can cause serious problems. SONET and SDH rely on a timing scheme known as plesiochronous timing. In a plesiochronous environment, the network knows that slight timing discrepancies will exist between the components. Instead of viewing this as
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