barcode generator in vb.net codeproject Circuit-Based Services in Software

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Circuit-Based Services
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Circuit-based services are characterized in the following fashion. They typically transport traffic from one physical port on a SONET or SDH device to another, and in general, circuit-based services support the following interface types, as shown in Figure 7-1: DS-3, EC-1, OC-3, OC-12, OC-48, OC-192, Gigabit Ethernet, STM-1, STM-16, and STM-64. In most cases,
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SONET and SDH Applications
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Figure 7-1 Transported traffic: DS-3, EC-1, OC-3, OC-12, OC-48, OC192, STM-1, STM-16, STM-64, Gigabit Ethernet.
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7
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emulating the private line services that they replace, circuit-based services support transmission rates ranging from 45 Mbps to 1 Gbps, usually in 45-Mbps increments. These services generally transport client bandwidth transparently from a source point to a destination point, provide fixed delay from end-to-end, and offer measurable and predictable QoS based largely on protection scheme capabilities and some measurable maximum bit error rate.
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Circuit-based services can be implemented in a variety of ways. Traditionally, they are provisioned over standard time-division multiplexed facilities such as SONET and SDH. More and more, however, the marketplace is asking for alternatives to these legacy solutions, such as ATM and IP. One of the services that ATM is capable of providing, shown in Figure 7-2, discussed earlier in the ATM chapter, is called circuit emulation service (CES). With CES, ATM cells are filled with TDM traffic for transport across the ATM wide area network (WAN). Bandwidth is moderated by changing the number of cells per second that are transmitted and the number of bytes of user payload that are placed into each cell. By controlling these two parameters, the overall throughput of the network can be carefully controlled. Another potential solution is to use IP packets as the transport mechanism. IP is a layer-three solution that has garnered a great deal of attention
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SONET and SDH Applications
SONET and SDH Applications
Circuit Emulation Service (CES) Frame Relay Bearer Service (FRBS) Cell Relay Service (CRS) Video on Demand (VOD) LAN Emulation (LANE) Multiprotocol Over ATM (MPOA)
Figure 7-2 The many services provided by ATM.
in the last few years because of its integral position in the Internet. It is a connectionless solution, however, which means that the capability to guarantee latency and QoS is severely limited, and virtually impossible (today) if implemented across the Internet properly. The only viable solution is to use proprietary options such as Cisco s Tag Switching concept that is extremely effective but indeed proprietary. Cisco has worked closely with other companies in the industry to develop a non-proprietary solution called Multiprotocol Label Switching (MPLS) that accomplishes the same task in an open environment, shown in Figure 7-3. Nevertheless, delivering guaranteed bandwidth and QoS over an all-IP network remains a task that most network providers consider Herculean. Ultimately, there is a single truth that cannot be ignored: neither IP nor ATM scale well at bandwidth levels in excess of OC-3/STM-1 (155.52 Mbps). TDM remains the best solution for the delivery of legacy traffic.
Figure 7-3 The evolution to MPLS.
MPLS
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SONET and SDH Applications
Measuring Service Differentiation
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Circuit-based services, like all telecom transport services, require a set of metrics that provides network planners and administrators with the wherewithal to measure the relative effectiveness of deployed technologies. These measures are most effective when they align with and provide a measure against the market drivers discussed earlier: support for the delivery of differentiated services, reduction of the overall aggregate cost to deliver bits from a source to a destination, and a successful capability to meet the never-ending demand for more and more bandwidth. The first of these, support for a diversity of service types, can be measured in several ways. These include a high degree of flexibility with regard to bandwidth management; support for a diverse array of service interfaces, including DS-3, OC-1, OC-3, and above; and the capability to provision extremely flexible and granular bandwidth with as close to an on-demand service level as possible, including both channelized and concatenated services. Support for many service types can also be measured by the capability to assign variable bandwidth levels to service rate-independent ports, including such interfaces as the various flavors of Ethernet, and the capability to offer a variety of protection schemes, including BLSR, UPSR, 1 1 for mesh networks, 1:N restoration, and 0:1 unprotected facilities. Customers are looking for diverse service types and demand has arisen for the capability to pay at different billing levels for different protection levels. The task of reducing the overall cost per transported bit can be accomplished in a variety of ways. These include the capability to provide facile scalability with a pay-as-you-grow option for service providers and the implementation and use of well-designed management systems as a way of performing end-to-end management and well-timed scalability as costcontrol measures. Reducing the overall cost per transported bit can also be done through hardware designs that increase the port density of deployed devices, thus reducing the floorspace footprint required to deliver scalable bandwidth. It can also be accomplished through the general use of modern switch, multiplexer, and cross-connect designs as a way to future-proof the network and ensure that network providers are enjoying the most bang for their bandwidth buck while offering multi-vendor interoperability where possible.
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