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Introduction to Relational Databases and SQL
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Data models are usually more specific than the illustrations shown in this Try This exercise. Relationships and keys are clearly marked with symbols that conform to a particular type of data modeling system, and relationships show only the attributes, but not the tuples. However, for the purposes of this chapter, it is enough that you have a basic understanding of normalization and the relationships between relations. The exercise is meant only as a way for you to better understand these concepts and how they apply to the relational model.
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Now that you have a fundamental understanding of the relational model, it s time to introduce you to SQL and its basic characteristics. As you might recall from the Understand Relational Databases section earlier in this chapter, SQL is based on the relational model, although it is not an exact implementation. While the relational model provides the theoretical underpinnings of the relational database, it is the SQL language that supports the physical implementation of that database. SQL, a nearly universally implemented relational language, is different from other computer languages such as C, COBOL, and Java, which are procedural. A procedural language defines how an application s operations should be performed and the order in which they are performed. A nonprocedural language, on the other hand, is concerned more with the results of an operation; the underlying software environment determines how the operations will be processed. This is not to say that SQL supports no procedural functionality. For example, stored procedures, added to many RDBMS products a number of years ago, are part of the SQL:2006 standard and provide procedural-like capabilities. (Stored procedures are discussed in 13.) Many of the RDBMS vendors added extensions to SQL to provide these procedural-like capabilities, such as Transact-SQL found in Sybase and Microsoft SQL Server and PL/SQL found in Oracle. SQL still lacks many of the basic programming capabilities of most other computer languages. For this reason, SQL is often referred to as a data sublanguage because it is most often used in association with application programming languages such as C and Java, languages that are not designed for manipulating data stored in a database. As a result, SQL is used in conjunction with the application language to provide an efficient means of accessing that data, which is why SQL is considered a sublanguage.
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In the early 1970s, after E. F. Codd s groundbreaking paper had been published, IBM began to develop a language and a database system that could be used to implement that model. When it was first defined, the language was referred to as Structured English Query Language (SEQUEL). When it was discovered that SEQUEL was a trademark owned by Hawker-Siddeley Aircraft Company of the UK, the name was changed to SQL. As word got out that IBM was developing a relational database system based on SQL, other companies
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began to develop their own SQL-based products. In fact, Relational Software, Inc., now the Oracle Corporation, released their database system before IBM got their product to market. As more vendors released their products, SQL began to emerge as the standard relational database language. In 1986, the American National Standards Institute (ANSI) released the first published standard for the language (SQL-86), which was adopted by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) in 1987. The standard was updated in 1989, 1992, 2003, 2006, and work continues. It has grown over time the original standard was well under 1,000 pages, while the SQL:2006 version weighs in at more than 3,700 pages. The standard was written in parts to permit more timely publication of revisions and to facilitate parallel work by different committees. Table 1-1 provides an overview of the parts and the current status of each.
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