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Using the IN Predicate
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The IN predicate allows you to determine whether the values in the specified column of one table are contained in a defined list or contained within another table. In the first case, you specify the column name, the IN keyword, and a list of values that are compared to the values in the specified column. In the second case, you specify the column name, the IN keyword, and a subquery, which references the second table. In either case, if the column value matches one of the values in the list or in the subquery results, the predicate evaluates to true, and the row is returned in the query results. The best way to illustrate both of these methods is through examples. However, before we look at those, refer to the tables shown in Figure 9-4. These are the tables I ll be using for the examples.
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COMPACT_DISC_INVENTORY CD_NAME: VARCHAR (60) Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Court and Spark Past Light Kojiki That Christmas Feeling Out of Africa Blues on the Bayou Orlando IN_STOCK: INT 13 42 22 17 6 8 29 27 5
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COMPACT_DISC_ARTISTS TITLE: VARCHAR(60) Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Court and Spark Past Light Kojiki That Christmas Feeling Patsy Cline: 12 Greatest Hits ARTIST: VARCHAR(60) Jennifer Warnes Joni Mitchell Joni Mitchell William Ackerman Kitaro Bing Crosby Patsy Cline
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After the Rain: The Soft Sounds of Erik Satie Pascal Roge Out of Africa Leonard Cohen The Best of Fundamental Blues on the Bayou Orlando John Barry Leonard Cohen Bonnie Raitt B.B. King David Motion
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Figure 9-4
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Querying data from the COMPACT_DISC_INVENTORY table and the COMPACT_ DISC_ARTISTS table
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As I mentioned, the first method for using the IN predicate is to define a list. Your list should include all values that are to be compared to the values in the specified column. For example, suppose you want to limit your query results to rows in the COMPACT_DISC_ INVENTORY table that have an IN_STOCK value of 12, 22, 32, or 42. You can create a SELECT statement that looks like the following:
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SELECT CD_NAME, IN_STOCK FROM COMPACT_DISC_INVENTORY WHERE IN_STOCK IN ( 12, 22, 32, 42 );
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This statement returns only two rows because those are the only rows that have the correct IN_STOCK values:
CD_NAME --------------Blue Court and Spark IN_STOCK -------42 22
9:
Using Predicates
As you can see, using the IN predicate to define a list is a fairly straightforward process and a useful one when you know exactly which values you want to compare your columns to. It also is a simpler method than defining separate predicates for each value, as in the following example:
SELECT FROM WHERE OR OR OR CD_NAME, IN_STOCK COMPACT_DISC_INVENTORY IN_STOCK = 12 IN_STOCK = 22 IN_STOCK = 32 IN_STOCK = 42;
This statement will return the same results as the SELECT statement in the previous example; however, as you can see, it s much more cumbersome. Now let s take a look at a SELECT statement that uses a subquery in the IN predicate. Suppose you want to create a query that returns CD names and their artists. You want your query results to include only those CDs that have more than 10 copies in stock. If you refer back to Figure 9-4, you ll see that the COMPACT_DISC_ARTISTS table includes the CD names and their artists. However, as you can also see, the IN_STOCK values are stored in the COMPACT_DISC_INVENTORY table, which means you ll need to reference that table in order to return the correct rows. To do so, you can create the following SELECT statement:
SELECT TITLE, ARTIST FROM COMPACT_DISC_ARTISTS WHERE TITLE IN ( SELECT CD_NAME FROM COMPACT_DISC_INVENTORY WHERE IN_STOCK > 10 );
If you execute this statement, you ll receive the following results:
TITLE -------------------Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Court and Spark Past Light Out of Africa Blues on the Bayou ARTIST ---------------Jennifer Warnes Joni Mitchell Joni Mitchell William Ackerman John Barry B.B. King
Notice that only six rows have been returned. These are the six CDs listed in the COMPACT_ DISC_INVENTORY table that have an IN_STOCK value greater than 10. Now let s take a closer look at the SELECT statement in order to give you a better understanding of how the IN predicate works. The WHERE clause contains only one predicate. It begins with the name of the column (TITLE) whose values you want to verify. The TITLE
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