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SQL: A Beginner s Guide
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SQL includes another type of predicate called a quantified comparison predicate, which is a type of predicate used in conjunction with a comparison operator to determine whether any or all returned values meet the search requirement. SQL supports three quantified comparison predicates: SOME, ANY, and ALL. The SOME and ANY predicates are referred to as existential quantifiers and are concerned with whether any returned values meet the search requirements. These two predicates are identical in meaning and can be used interchangeably. The ALL predicate is referred to as a universal quantifier and is concerned with whether all returned values meet the search requirements. Now let s take a closer look at each one.
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Using the SOME and ANY Predicates
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As I mentioned, the SOME and ANY predicates return identical results. For each row, the predicates compare the value in a specified column to the results of a subquery. If the comparison evaluates to true for any of the results, the condition has been satisfied and that row is returned. To create one of these predicates, you must specify the column name that contains the values you want to compare, the comparison operator (see the Compare SQL Data section), the SOME or ANY keyword, and the subquery. Although you can use either keyword, I prefer ANY because it seems more intuitive to me, but feel free to use either one. Now let s take a look at an example to give you a better feel for how these predicates work. The example is based on the CD_RETAIL table and the CD_SALE table, which are shown in Figure 9-5. In this example, I want to query data from the CD_SALE table. I want to return only those rows that have a SALE value less than some of the RETAIL values in the CD_RETAIL table.
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CD_RETAIL CD_NAME: VARCHAR(60) Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Court and Spark Past Light Kojiki That Christmas Feeling
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CD_SALE IN_STOCK: TITLE: RETAIL: VARCHAR(60) NUMERIC(5,2) INT 16.99 14.99 14.99 15.99 15.99 10.99 5 10 12 11 4 8 14 Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Court and Spark Past Light Kojiki That Christmas Feeling SALE: NUMERIC(5,2) 14.99 12.99 14.99 14.99 13.99 10.99
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Figure 9-5
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Using qualified comparison predicates on the CD_RETAIL and CD_SALE tables
9:
Using Predicates
The RETAIL values should be from rows that have an IN_STOCK value greater than 9. In other words, the query should return only those CDs whose sale price is less than any retail price of those CDs in which there are more than nine in stock. To accomplish this, I will use the following SELECT statement:
SELECT FROM WHERE ( TITLE, SALE CD_SALE SALE < ANY SELECT RETAIL FROM CD_RETAIL WHERE IN_STOCK > 9 );
If you want, you can use the SOME keyword rather than the ANY keyword. The query results would be the same, as shown in the following results:
TITLE ---------------------Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Court and Spark Past Light Kojiki That Christmas Feeling SALE ----14.99 12.99 14.99 14.99 13.99 10.99
Now let s look at the SELECT statement more closely. The ANY predicate contains the following subquery:
SELECT RETAIL FROM CD_RETAIL WHERE IN_STOCK > 9
If you were to execute this subquery on its own, you would receive the following results:
RETAIL ------14.99 14.99 15.99 16.99
The SALE value in each row in the CD_SALE table is then compared to the subquery results. For example, the Past Light row has a SALE value of 14.99. This value is compared to the subquery results to see whether 14.99 is less than any value. Because it is less than 15.99 and 16.99, the predicate evaluates to true, and the row is returned. The only row that does not evaluate to true is the Patsy Cline: 12 Greatest Hits row because the SALE value is 16.99, and this is not less than any of the values returned by the query results. You can use any of the six comparison operators in an ANY or SOME predicate. For example, if you had used the greater than operator, only the Patsy Cline: 12 Greatest Hits row
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