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SQL: A Beginner s Guide
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would have been returned because it would have been the only row with a SALE value greater than any row in the subquery results.
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The quantified comparison predicates do not support an inverse condition like other predicates. In other words, you cannot add the NOT keyword before ANY or SOME. However, you can achieve the same results using the not equal to (<>) operator,
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Using the ALL Predicate
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The ALL predicate works much like the ANY and SOME predicates in that it compares column values to the subquery results. However, rather than the column values having to evaluate to true for any of the result values, the column values must evaluate to true for all the result values; otherwise, the row is not returned. Let s return to the previous example we looked at, only this time substitute the keyword ALL for the keyword ANY. Your new SELECT statement will look like the following:
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SELECT FROM WHERE ( TITLE, SALE CD_SALE SALE < ALL SELECT RETAIL FROM CD_RETAIL WHERE IN_STOCK > 9 );
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If you execute this statement, you ll find that your query results are quite different from what they were in the previous example:
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TITLE ---------------------Blue Kojiki That Christmas Feeling SALE ----12.99 13.99 10.99
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This time, only three rows are returned because they are the only ones that meet the condition of the WHERE predicate. If you take a closer look at the statement, you ll find that the subquery returns the same values as it does in the previous examples. However, the SALE value for each row in the CD_SALE table must now be less than all the values in the subquery results. For example, the Kojiki row contains a SALE value of 13.99. The subquery results include the values 14.99, 15.99, and 16.99. The 13.99 value is less than all three of the subquery result values, which means that the predicate evaluates to true, so that row is included in the query results. On the other hand, the Past Light row contains a SALE value of 14.99, which is not less than the 14.99 subquery value, so that row is not included in the query results.
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9:
Using Predicates
Ask the Expert
In your discussions about quantified comparison predicates, you included examples on how to use these predicates; however, the examples included only one predicate in the WHERE clause. Can you use multiple predicates when using a quantified comparison predicate Yes, you can use multiple predicates. As with any other sort of predicate, you simply connect the predicates using the AND keyword or the OR keyword. But you must make sure that the logic you re using not only makes sense in terms of the data being returned, but also in the sense of being able to understand the statement itself. As a result, the best way to treat these sorts of situations is to set off each predicate in parentheses and then connect the parenthetical expressions with AND or OR. For example, suppose you want to take the example in the section Using the SOME and ANY Predicates and add a LIKE predicate to it. (The example is based on Figure 9-5.) You can create a SELECT statement similar to the following:
SELECT TITLE, SALE FROM CD_SALE WHERE ( SALE < ANY ( SELECT RETAIL FROM CD_RETAIL WHERE IN_STOCK > 9 ) ) AND ( TITLE LIKE ('%Blue%') );
Notice that each predicate has been enclosed in a set of parentheses and that they are joined together by AND. If you execute this statement, your query results will meet the condition of the ANY predicate and the LIKE predicate, which specifies that the TITLE value include the word Blue. If you wanted to, you could write these statements without enclosing the predicates in parentheses, but then the statements can start to get confusing and, in more complex structures, can start producing unexpected results.
As with the ANY and SOME predicates, you can use any of the six comparison operators in an ALL predicate. In addition, you can create any type of subquery, as long as it fits in logically with the main SELECT statement. The point to remember is that the column value must be true for all subquery results, not just some of them.
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