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Working with Numeric Value Expressions
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Numeric value expressions are expressions that use mathematic operators to perform calculations on numeric data values stored in your tables. You can use these operators to add, subtract, multiply, and divide these values. Table 10-2 shows the four operators that you can use to create numeric value expressions. You can build numeric value expressions in much the same way as you build mathematical formulas. The basic principles are the same. For example, multiplication and division take
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CD_NAME: VARCHAR(60) Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Court and Spark Past Light That Christmas Feeling Patsy Cline: 12 Greatest Hits Out of Africa Leonard Cohen The Best of Fundamental Blues on the Bayou
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CD_CATEGORY: CHAR(4) FROK CPOP CPOP NEWA XMAS CTRY STRK FROK BLUS BLUS
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IN_STOCK: ON_ORDER: SOLD: INT INT INT 19 28 12 6 14 15 8 6 10 11 16 22 11 7 14 18 5 8 6 10 34 56 48 22 34 54 26 18 21 17
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Using value expressions on the CD_TRACKING table
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Working with Functions and Value Expressions
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Addition Subtraction Multiplication Division
Operator
+ /
Example
IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER SOLD (IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER) IN_STOCK 2 SOLD / 2
Table 10-2 Using Numeric Value Expressions to Calculate Data
precedence over addition and subtraction, and elements that should be calculated first are enclosed in parentheses; otherwise, each operation is calculated according to precedence and the order in which it is written. For example, the formula 2 + 2 * 5 / 4 equals 4.5; however, the formula (2 + 2) * 5 / 4 equals 5. In the first formula, 2 is multiplied by 5, then divided by 4, and then added to 2. In the second formula, 2 is added to 2, then multiplied by 5, and then divided by 4. Now let s take a look at an example of a numeric value expression. Suppose you want to add the IN_STOCK column to the ON_ORDER column in the CD_TRACKING table. You can create a SELECT statement similar to the following:
SELECT CD_NAME, IN_STOCK, ON_ORDER, (IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER) AS TOTAL FROM CD_TRACKING
As you can see, the SELECT clause first specifies three column names: CD_NAME, IN_STOCK, and ON_ORDER. These are then followed by a numeric value expression: (IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER). Values from the IN_STOCK and ON_ORDER columns are added together and included in the query results under a column named TOTAL, as shown in the following results:
CD_NAME ----------------------------Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Court and Spark Past Light That Christmas Feeling Patsy Cline: 12 Greatest Hits Out of Africa Leonard Cohen The Best Of Fundamental Blues on the Bayou IN_STOCK -------19 28 12 6 14 15 8 6 10 11 ON_ORDER -------16 22 11 7 14 18 5 8 6 10 TOTAL ----35 50 23 13 28 33 13 14 16 21
For each row, a value has been added to the TOTAL column that adds together the values in the IN_STOCK column and the ON_ORDER column. Numeric value expressions are not limited to the SELECT clause. For example, you can use one in a WHERE clause to specify a search condition. Suppose you want to return the
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same results as in the previous SELECT statement but only for those CDs with a TOTAL value greater than 25. You can modify your statement as follows:
SELECT CD_NAME, IN_STOCK, ON_ORDER, (IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER) AS TOTAL FROM CD_TRACKING WHERE (IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER) > 25
Now your search results include only four rows, as shown in the following:
CD_NAME ----------------------------Famous Blue Raincoat Blue That Christmas Feeling Patsy Cline: 12 Greatest Hits IN_STOCK -------19 28 14 15 ON_ORDER -------16 22 14 18 TOTAL ----35 50 28 33
Numeric value operators can also be combined with each other to create more complex expressions. In the next example, I include an additional expression that calculates three sets of values and combines them into one column in the query results:
SELECT CD_NAME, IN_STOCK, ON_ORDER, (IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER) AS TOTAL, SOLD, (SOLD - (IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER)) AS SHORTAGE FROM CD_TRACKING WHERE (IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER) > 25
This statement allows you to calculate how many CDs you have available (IN_STOCK + ON_ORDER) as compared to how many you sold. The difference is then added to the SHORTAGE column in the query results. If you have sold more CDs than are available, a positive number is placed in the SHORTAGE column. If, on the other hand, there are enough CDs available, a negative number is created. The following query results show the amounts calculated when you execute the SELECT statement:
CD_NAME ----------------------------Famous Blue Raincoat Blue That Christmas Feeling Patsy Cline: 12 Greatest Hits IN_STOCK -------19 28 14 15 ON_ORDER -------16 22 14 18 TOTAL ----35 50 28 33 SOLD ---34 56 34 54 SHORTAGE --------1 6 6 21
The query results now include two calculated columns: TOTAL and SHORTAGE. All other values (IN_STOCK, ON_ORDER, and SOLD) are taken directly from the table. As you can see, numeric value expressions are quite flexible and can be used in many different ways. In addition to the methods we ve looked at so far, you can also combine column values with specified values. For example, suppose you want to see how many CDs
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