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SQL: A Beginner s Guide
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To better understand how the entire SELECT statement works, let s first look at the inner subquery. If you were to execute this statement alone, it would return a value of 11, which is the DISC_TYPE_ID value for the DISC_TYPE_NAME value of Blues. The outer subquery uses this value in the IN predicate to return those rows with a DISC_TYPE_ID value of 11. In this case, the only row returned is the B.B. King row, which has an ARTIST_ID value of 103. The ARTIST_ID value is then used in the IN predicate of the primary SELECT statement to return only those rows that contain an ARTIST_ID value of 103. If you execute the entire SELECT statement, you ll receive the following query results:
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DISC_NAME -----------------Blues on the Bayou Deuces Wild STOCK_AMOUNT -----------19 17
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As you can see, only two rows are returned. Notice that the results don t include any information from the DISC_ARTISTS table or the DISC_TYPES table, although these two tables are integral to arriving at these results. If you had wanted, you could have nested additional subqueries in your statement. Each one would have been processed in the same manner as the subqueries shown in the previous example.
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Use Subqueries to Modif y Data
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At the beginning of this chapter, I told you that you can use subqueries to modify data as well as query data. We ll now look at the three primary data modification statements INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE and how they use subqueries to modify data in your database. For each statement, I provide an example that modifies data in the TITLE_TYPES table, shown in Figure 12-4. Each example includes a subquery that returns data from the TITLES_ INVENTORY table. This information is used as a basis for the data modification in the TITLE_ TYPES table.
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This section focuses on the subqueries used in the INSERT, UPDATE, and DELETE statements. For more information about the statements themselves, see 8.
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An INSERT statement, as you no doubt recall, allows you to add data to an existing table. You can add that data directly to the table or through a view that allows you to insert data into the underlying table. If you use a subquery in an INSERT statement, you must include it as one of the values defined in the VALUES clause. For example, suppose you want to insert data into the TITLE_TYPES table. The VALUES clause should include a value for the CD_TITLE column and the CD_TYPE column. Now suppose that you know the TITLE_ID value (from the TITLES_INVENTORY table), but you don t know the exact
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12:
Using Subqueries to Access and Modify Data
TITLES_INVENTORY TITLE_ID: INT 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 TITLE: VARCHAR(60) Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Past Light Blues on the Bayou Luck of the Draw Deuces Wild Nick of Time Both Sides Now STOCK: INT 12 24 9 19 25 17 11 13
TITLE_TYPES CD_TITLE: VARCHAR(60) Famous Blue Raincoat Blue Court and Spark Past Light Fundamental Blues on the Bayou Longing in their Hearts Deuces Wild Nick of Time CD_TYPE: CHAR(20) Folk Popular Popular New Age Popular Blues Popular Blues Popular
Figure 12-4
Modifying the TITLE_TYPES table
name of the CD. You can create an INSERT statement that pulls the name of the CD from the TITLES_INVENTORY table and inserts that value into the TITLE_TYPES table, as shown in the following example:
INSERT INTO TITLE_TYPES VALUES ( ( SELECT TITLE FROM TITLES_INVENTORY WHERE TITLE_ID = 108 ), 'Popular' );
Notice that the subquery appears as one of the values in the VALUES clause. The subquery returns the value of Both Sides Now. This value and the value Popular are inserted into the TITLE_TYPES table. For the most part, using a subquery in an INSERT statement is a relatively simple process. However, you must be sure that your subquery returns only one value; otherwise, you will receive an error. In addition, the value must be compatible with the data type and any other constraints defined on the target column.
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