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Creating SQL-Invoked Routines
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However, views are very limited with regard to the types of statements and functionality that are supported. For example, you cannot include an UPDATE statement in a view, nor can you pass parameters to and/or from views. As a result, a better way to store this SELECT statement is as an SQL-invoked procedure. To do this, you must create a schema object by using the CREATE PROCEDURE statement, as shown in the following example:
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CREATE PROCEDURE NEW_AGE_CDS ( ) SELECT CD_TITLE, CD_STOCK FROM CD_INVENTORY i, CD_TYPES t WHERE i.CD_TYPE_ID = t.CD_TYPE_ID AND CD_TYPE_NAME = 'New Age';
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This statement represents the minimum amount of information that you must provide in order to create a procedure. It includes a CREATE PROCEDURE clause that names the procedure (NEW_AGE_CDS), a set of parentheses, and a routine body, which is the SELECT statement. If you were defining parameters, their declarations would be enclosed in the parentheses. As you might well imagine, a CREATE PROCEDURE statement can be far more complex than what you see here. However, the statement in the example represents the basic structure on which you would build more extensive statements. Before I discuss more complicated procedures, let s first touch on the issue of how this statement is created in various SQL implementations. Earlier in the chapter, I told you that SQL implementations can vary widely with regard to the specifics of how SQL-invoked routines are created and called. As a result, few implementations support pure SQL when attempting to define your procedures. For example, both SQL Server and Oracle require that you use the AS keyword before the routine body. In addition, SQL Server does not use parentheses after the procedure name, whether or not parameters are being defined. Oracle, on the other hand, does use the parentheses, and it also requires some additional statements that enclose executable statements in BEGIN END blocks. As mentioned earlier, MySQL and DB2 closely follow the SQL standard. From this it should be clear that you simply must consult your product documentation whenever you re creating a procedure to determine how the product-specific language differs from the SQL standard.
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Invoking SQL-Invoked Procedures
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Once you ve created your procedure, you can invoke (call) it by using a CALL statement. The basic syntax for the CALL statement is as follows: CALL <procedure name> ( [ <value> [ { , <value> } . . . ] ] ) As you can see, you must identify the name of the procedure in the CALL clause and follow that with the values (in parentheses) that are passed into the procedure as parameters. If no parameters are defined for the procedure, you must still use the parentheses. If more than
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one parameter is defined for the procedure, you must separate them with commas. In addition, you must follow these guidelines when entering values:
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Your CALL statement must include the same number of values as the number of parameters defined in the procedure. The values must be entered in the same order as the order in which they are defined in the procedure. The values must conform to the data types that are assigned to the parameters.
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I ll be discussing parameters in more detail in the next section, Add Input Parameters to Your Procedures. Now let s look at an example of the CALL statement. If you want to call the procedure that was created in the preceding example, you can use the following statement:
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CALL NEW_AGE_CDS( );
In this statement, the name of the procedure follows the CALL keyword. Notice the use of parentheses even though no parameters were defined for the procedure. Had parameters been defined, they would have been enclosed in the parentheses. When you execute this statement, you ll receive the same results as you would have if you had executed the SELECT statement separately, as shown in the following query results:
CD_TITLE ---------Past Light Kojiki CD_STOCK --------6 10
The CALL statement, like the CREATE PROCEDURE statement, can vary from SQL implementation to implementation in how it is used and whether it is supported. In fact, you ll probably find that, for most implementations, you must use an EXECUTE statement, rather than CALL, to invoke a procedure.
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