barcode generator in vb.net codeproject You should receive a message indicating that the GET_CD_ARTISTS procedure has been created. in Software

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You should receive a message indicating that the GET_CD_ARTISTS procedure has been created.
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SQL: A Beginner s Guide
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6. Now you ll call the GET_CD_ARTISTS procedure. The CALL statement will include
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the Fundamental value to insert into the parameter. Enter and execute the following SQL statement:
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CALL GET_CD_ARTISTS('Fundamental');
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Your query results should now include only the Fundamental row.
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7. The next procedure that you ll create is one that uses a variable to hold a number based on
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the average of the IN_STOCK values. The procedure definition will include a compound statement that groups together the other statements in the routine body. Enter and execute the following SQL statement:
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CREATE PROCEDURE GET_CD_AMOUNT ( ) BEGIN DECLARE v_In_Stock INT; SET v_In_Stock = ( SELECT AVG(IN_STOCK) FROM COMPACT_DISCS ); SELECT CD_TITLE, IN_STOCK FROM COMPACT_DISCS WHERE IN_STOCK < v_In_Stock; END;
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You should receive a message indicating that the procedure has been created.
8. Now you ll call the procedure. Enter and execute the following SQL statement: CALL GET_CD_AMOUNT( );
Your query results should include a list of CDs that have an IN_STOCK value less than the average for all IN_STOCK values.
9. Close the client application.
Try This Summary
In this Try This exercise, you created three procedures. The first procedure, GET_CD_ ARTISTS, included no parameters or variables. After you dropped that procedure, you modified the original GET_CD_ARTISTS procedure to include a parameter. You then created a new procedure (GET_CD_AMOUNT) that included no procedures but did include one variable. The INVENTORY database should now contain these two procedures. Because both procedures only retrieve SQL data, you can invoke them at any time.
Add Output Parameters to Your Procedures
Up to this point, we ve looked only at procedures that take input parameter values. However, SQL-invoked procedures also support output parameters. Output parameters provide a way to create a procedure that returns a value (or multiple values).
13:
Creating SQL-Invoked Routines
The process of defining an output parameter is similar to that of defining an input parameter, only you use the OUT keyword rather than IN. However, you must still provide a parameter name and assign a data type. In addition, you must assign a value to that parameter before the procedure ends by using a SET statement, although many implementations automatically return null values for output parameters that were not assigned a value. A procedure definition can include both input and output parameters (and input/output parameters if your implementation supports them). You can also include variables or any other elements that we ve looked at so far in this chapter. Now let s take a look at an example of an output parameter. The following CREATE PROCEDURE statement creates a procedure that includes one output parameter (but no input parameters or variables):
CREATE PROCEDURE NEW_AGE_TOTAL ( OUT p_Total INT ) BEGIN SET p_Total = ( SELECT SUM(CD_STOCK) FROM CD_INVENTORY i, CD_TYPES t WHERE i.CD_TYPE_ID = t.CD_TYPE_ID AND CD_TYPE_NAME = New Age ); END;
The output parameter (p_Total) is assigned the INT data type. The SET statement defines a value for the parameter. In this case, the value is equal to the total number of New Age CDs. This is the value that is returned by the procedure when you invoke it. The process of invoking this procedure is different from what you ve seen so far. When invoking a procedure with an output parameter, you must first declare a variable that is then used in the CALL statement, as shown in the following example:
BEGIN DECLARE p_Total INT; CALL NEW_AGE_TOTAL( p_Total ); END;
In this case, I used the same name for the variable as the name of the parameter that was defined in the procedure definition. However, the variable and parameter are not required to have the same name, although they must be defined with the same data type.
Create SQL-Invoked Functions
Earlier in the chapter, in the Understand SQL-Invoked Routines section, I introduced you to the two types of SQL-invoked routines procedures and functions and I described the differences and similarities between the two. The main differences are that procedures support the definition of input and output parameters and are invoked by using the CALL statement. Functions, on the other hand, support the definition of input parameters only and are invoked as a value in an expression. The function s output is the value returned by the execution of the function, and not through the explicit definition of an output parameter.
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