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Now that you have a better understanding of what an authorization identifier is along with user identifiers and role names let s take a look at what you can do with these identifiers. Access to data in a database is based on being able to access the objects that contain the data. For example, you might grant some users access to a specific set of tables, while other users have access only to specific columns within a table. SQL allows you to define access privileges on the following schema objects:
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Columns Domains Character sets Collations Translations User-defined types Sequences Triggers SQL-invoked routines
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For each type of object, you can assign specific types of privileges that vary by object type. These assigned privileges are associated with specific authorization identifiers. In other words, you can assign one or more privileges for an object to one or more authorization identifiers. For example, you can assign the SELECT privilege for a table to the PUBLIC authorization identifier. This would allow all database users to view the contents of that table. SQL defines nine types of privileges that you can assign to a schema object. Table 6-1 describes each of these privileges and lists the types of objects to which the privilege can be assigned.
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Privilege
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Allows specified authorization identifiers to query data in the object. For example, if UserA is granted the SELECT privilege on the CD_ARTISTS table, that user can view data in that table.
Objects
Tables Views Columns Methods (in structured types) Tables Views Columns Tables Views Columns
INSERT
Allows specified authorization identifiers to insert data into the object. For example, if UserA is granted the INSERT privilege on the CD_ARTISTS table, that user can add data to that table. Allows specified authorization identifiers to update data in the object. For example, if UserA is granted the UPDATE privilege on the CD_ARTISTS table, that user can modify data in that table. However, this privilege does not allow the user to change the table definition. Allows specified authorization identifiers to delete data from the object. For example, if UserA is granted the DELETE privilege on the CD_ARTISTS table, that user can remove data from that table. However, this privilege does not allow the user to drop the table definition from the database.
UPDATE
DELETE
Tables Views
Table 6-1 Security Privileges Assigned to Database Objects
SQL: A Beginner s Guide
Privilege
REFERENCES
Description
Allows specified authorization identifiers to define objects (such as referential constraints) that reference the table configured with the REFERENCES privilege. For example, if UserA is granted the REFERENCES privilege on the CD_ARTISTS table, that user can create other objects that reference the CD_ARTISTS table, as would be the case with foreign keys. (Note that UserA must also have the authorization to create the other object.) Allows specified authorization identifiers to create triggers on the table. For example, if UserA is granted the TRIGGER privilege on the CD_ARTISTS table, that user can create triggers on that table. Allows specified authorization identifiers to use the object in a column definition. For example, if UserA is granted the USAGE privilege on the MONEY domain, that user can include the domain in a column definition when creating a table. (Note that UserA must also have the authorization to create a table.) Allows specified authorization identifiers to invoke an SQLinvoked routine. For example, if UserA is granted the EXECUTE privilege on the UPDATE_CD_LISTING stored procedure, that user would be able to invoke that stored procedure.
Objects
Tables Views Columns
TRIGGER
Tables
USAGE
Domains Character sets Collations Translations User-defined types Sequences SQL-invoked routines
EXECUTE
UNDER
Structured types Allows specified authorization identifiers to define a direct subtype on a structured type. A direct subtype is a structured type that is associated with another structured type as a child object of that type. For example, if UserA is granted the UNDER privilege on the EMPLOYEE structured type, that user can define direct subtypes such as MANAGER or SUPERVISOR.
Table 6-1 Security Privileges Assigned to Database Objects (continued)
Privileges are granted on database objects by using the GRANT statement to specify the objects as well as the authorization identifier that will acquire the privileges. You can also revoke privileges by using the REVOKE statement. I will be going into greater detail about both these statements as we move through the chapter. However, before I discuss how to grant or revoke privileges, I want to first discuss how to create a role name. (Remember, the SQL standard doesn t support the creation of a user identifier, only role names. The process for creating user identifiers is implementation specific.)
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